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Bulgaria is situated in the eastern part of the Balkan peninsula which on the other hand is located in Eastern Europe. During the Roman times in these lands several provinces were developed.
The territories of modern Northern Bulgaria were initially part of the provinces Moesia and Thracia, but after the splitting of Moesia by Domitian in 86 AD were divided between the two new provinces, Moesia Superior and Moesia Inferior, and a lesser part remained in Thracia. Before the arrival of the Romans the area south of the Lower Danube and east of the Morava valley was inhabitated by thracian tribes, as well as scordisci. During the period of annexation of the area in hand, the tribes often have moved their settlements and that is the reason that we know so little about the borderlines of their territories. The province of Moesia Superior included the western part of the modern Northern Bulgaria, the eastern part of the modern Serbia and in southwest reaches Skopje in FYROM. As more significant cities have developed: Viminacium (Kostolac, Serbia), Scupi (Skopje, FYROM) and Ratiaria (Archar, Bulgaria).
In the 1. century AD in Moesia as border province were stationed four Roman legions and numerous other military units.
The province of Moesia Inferior included territories that are located in modern Bulgaria and Romania. On the north the border was the river Danube, on the south – the Balkan mountains (lat. Haemus). In the west the lands of this Roman province have reached the valley of the river Ciabrus (Cibrica), and in the east – the west coast of the Black sea. The capital city of the province was Tomis (Konstantsa, Romania). Other cities of Moesia Inferior were Ulpia Oescus (Gigen, Bulgaria), which was a Roman colonia from 106 AD, Durostorum (Silistra, Bulgaria), Noviodunum (Isaccea, Romania) etc. The borders of the province have changed several times during the first and second centuries from its establishment and in the end of the 2. century AD the northeastern parts of the province of Thracia were incorporated administratively to it. Thus, during the rule of the Severan dynasty, the territories of Moesia Inferior included the territories of the cities Nicopolis ad Istrum (Nikyup, Bulgaria) and Marcianopolis (Devnja, Bulgaria).
In the Southwest Bulgaria is found a little part of the province Macedonia, which was one of the earliest Roman possessions in the Balkans – from 146 BC. The lands of the thracian tribe Maedi, from which originated Spartacus, were annexed to it. The Maedi lived in the area along the riversides of Struma and Mesta . During the Roman times in this region have prospered the city Nicopolis ad Nestum (Gotse Delchev, Bulgaria) and the ancient city, which name is still unknown and locates under the modern Sandanski, Bulgaria.
Before the Roman rule in Thracia some of the best known thracian tribes are: Odrysians, Besi, Cicones, Serdes, Dentelets. For a long period Thrace was Roman tributary kingdom, from the end of the 2 century BC until 45 AD, which is the year when was declared Roman province. Its capital city is Perintus at Marmara sea coast (modern Turkey). On the west and southwest the province of Thracia has a common border with the province of Macedonia. To the south has reached Aegean sea, to the north – Moesia Superior and Moesia Inferior and to the east the Black sea. The real economic and cultural center of the province during the entire Roman period remains the city of Philippopolis (Plovdiv, Bulgaria). Several other big cities existed on the territory of the province: Pautalia (Kyustendil, Bulgaria), Serdica (Sofia, Bulgaria), Augusta Traiana (Stara Zagora, Bulgaria), Hadrianopolis (Edirne, Turkey), Traianopolis and Plotinopolis (Didymoteicho) both in modern Greece . In Thracia was organized just one Roman colonia and that was Deultum (Debelt, Bulgaria), founded in 70 AD. As an internal Roman province, there were stationed some small military units.