Ritual practices and sanctuaries in the province of Raetia

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Basic elements of the ritual structures of Raetia

The 80,000km2 province of Raetia encompassed the area from eastern Switzerland in the west, to the mouth of the Inn in the east, and between the Danube (later the Franconian Alb) in the north, and the Southern Tyrol, and the Ticino (on the south side of the main range of the Alps), in the south. Topographically it contained a substantial part of the Alps, the north-western Alpine piedmont and the southern fringes of the Mittelgebirge.

The correct, but rarely used, name of the province was Raetia et Vindelicia, which roughly describes the population mix encountered by the Romans in the course of the Alpine campaign of 15BC. The term Raetians may not be a specific tribal name in this context, but a collective title (perhaps even of Roman origin) for a number of smaller central Alpine tribes who lived between the Upper Inn valley, the Piave, Lago Maggiore and Lake Constance. The Vindelicians, on the other hand, were apparently a specific tribal confederation, whose component septs (some of which are known by name) settled in an area east of Lake Constance, along the northern foothills of the Alps. It is uncertain what ethnic group the Vindelicians and Raetians originally belonged to. The latter are usually thought to have been a long-standing traditional culture preserved through the isolation of their homeland, whilst the Vindelicians may have been a cultural mix of Celtic survivors and German immigrants, who had increasingly entered the area during the 1st century BC. At the start of that century the Alpine piedmont was still part of the Celtic area, but various factors, such as increasing pressure from Germanic tribes from the Elbe, soon led to a massive wave of Celtic emigration. This is archaeologically detectable as a near complete cessation of the Iron Age settlement sites and cemeteries west of the Inn and east of the Odenwald and Black Forest, either on the eve of the Gallic War, or in its early stages (Latène D1). Thanks to a lack of good excavation data from settlement sites, almost nothing is known about the surviving population or the new settlers from the ensuing period, who may have formed the nucleus of the Vindelici encountered by the Romans. Raetia north of the Alps seems to have been only thinly settled until the Romans arrived. This may be underlined by the "Heimstenener Gruppe", a group of settlers who can be identified between 30 and 60 AD in the rural area between Munich, Kempten and Augsburg (unless they were settled in the area by the Roman administration). According to the current research consensus their dress accessories (which are known mostly from graves) are consistent with an origin in the valleys north of the main Alpine ridge. More recent analyses, however, suggest that they could represent an indigenous group who tried to differentiate themselves, in the face of increasing Romanisation, through intense traditionalism and the resuscitation of a putative indigenous culture. This change of habit then made them archaeologically recognisable for the first time.

In summary, we can say that the early Roman population of the Alpine piedmont was a mixed one that combined Celtic, German, possibly Alpine and finally Roman ritual ideas. Continuation of indigenous cult traditions and ritual sites into the Roman period should thus have occurred only in exceptional cases. The situation in the Alps may have been different, however, as the topography largely precluded significant population changes until the Roman period.

Indigenous Ritual sites and cult continuations

The majority of later pre-Roman Iron Age ritual sites in Raetia seem to have been open-air locations with no significant associated buildings. The study area's many "Viereckschanzen" might change this impression somewhat, if most were sanctuaries as is claimed in older publications, but this view has come increasingly under attack in recent years. They are characterised by rectangular bank and ditch enclosures, and their distribution covers the area between France and Bohemia, with a marked concentration in southern Germany.

While the plans of some of the timber post structures would make plausible ancestors to Gallo-Roman temples, this seems rather unlikely, because of their low find levels. This would be uncharacteristic of sanctuaries and more in keeping with secular usage. There has recently been a preference for interpreting them as rural settlements, but this does not, of course, preclude the possibility that some Viereckschanzen may have contained shrines. This is borne out by similar structures in the Gallic areas, which were definitely ritual sites. In contrast to the some of the latter, the Raetian examples have not yet produced evidence for site or building type continuity between the late LaTène and the Roman period. Indeed, most of them seem to end with the large-scale emigrations at the end of Latène D1, and evidence for continued existence beyond the middle of the century is rare. Ritual sites with no architectural elements are hard to identify archaeologically, but these also largely lack evidence for continuity. The "Raetian pyre sites" are an exception, however. Sacrificial pyres date back to the Bronze Age in the Alpine and neighbouring regions. The habit ceased at the end of the Hallstatt period in the Alpine piedmont, but in the mountains it continued into the early LaTène, before being increasingly abandoned. A re-emergence can be found in the Late Latène period, at the earliest, in the northern foothills of the Alps and the sites that then stayed in use into the early Roman period, along with those that were only created then, usually occupy topographically significant points.

They frequently continued in use into the 3rd century and, in some cases, into the 4th, but the reasons why such sacrificial pyres should have been re-establishment at the start of Roman rule are disputed. Some would see them as a deliberate revival of traditional habits by an indigenous population, in the face of increasing Romanisation. Others prefer to see them as a move by new settlers who had been brought to this sparsely settled northern area by the Romans, from original homes in the Alps, and who now established themselves by using traditional forms. Whatever the case, the distribution of the pyre sites fits quite well with the settlement patterns (or rather burial areas) of the "Heimstettener Gruppe". The ritual sites vary somewhat in plan. They are characterised by dark earth and calcified animal bones and, when analysed, the latter show a very strong selection towards skull and hoof fragments, mostly from cattle and sheep/goats. This may reflect an original hunter ritual that saw the sacrifice of parts with strong associations with regeneration as a way of ensuring stock levels. One well studied example is the Forggensee in the Schwangau area (Kr. Ostallgäu; Bayern) / D. It is now covered by the reservoir north of Füssen, from which it gets its name, but it originally lay bordered by two small streams, on a terrace that sloped to the southwest towards the valley of the River Lech. From here the visitor had an wonderful panorama of the Alps, whilst the site itself was clearly visible from the Via Claudia Augusta, the long distance highway on the opposite bank of the river.

The sanctuary was divided into three separate sections (location 1-3), which covered a 40-50m area that had been de-turfed and levelled up with clay. The central area (location 2) contained a low altar-like (6 x 4m) podium of sand and limestone slabs and marked ash layers, with small calcified bone fragments, in its vicinity suggest that this is where the animal parts were sacrificed. The bone material was significantly different from that recovered in an earlier layer in the area to the west (location 1). Much larger bones survived here, suggesting that this was where the cult community ate the meatier pieces of the sacrificial animal as part of a ritual meal. The eastern part of the same site (location 3) was used for the deposition of numerous metal finds: mostly iron, but including coins and small dress accessories. Pottery fragments were rare, by contrast. The strong preference for iron objects, including numerous spearheads, tools, shield buckles, knives, brooches, ritual tools and horse, wagon and construction fittings, may be linked to the exploitation of local iron ore resources. Even the site's location may reflect this, given that one of the two streams (which already existed in antiquity) contains iron rich and thus rusty red water. Later in the sanctuary’s history, location 1 developed another altar-like stone mound, but unlike the older altar, which remained in use, this one was made of gravel, which was originally stabilised by larger blocks to form a round base. Ash layers and heat damage on the stones prove the existence of a fire on this site as well. The deposition of metal objects now moved to the western part of location 1 and beyond, whilst more ritual deposition continued at location 3, to the east of the main altar. The main period of use ran from the late LaTène into the Claudio-Neronian period, and continued thereafter, at a much lower level, until the first half of the 3rd century. A number of smaller find locations (I-VII), which were either contemporary or spatially linked with the main sacrificial site, were identified slightly further to the north and east. Fires seem to have burnt at some of these as well, but their exact function and relationship to the main cult site remains uncertain. Depending on the size of the excavated area, their preservation and the level of analysis of their potential bone material, it can be difficult to differentiate sacrificial pyre sites from ruined graves or other finds scatters, especially as the sites lack characteristic architectural features.

The Döttenbichel near Oberammergau (Kr. Garmisch-Partenkirchen; Bayern) / D is a case in point. On one c.180 x 160m area, more than 700 metal objects were found. A few of the late LaTène finds showed fire damage. There were a few cases of possible ritual destruction, and there were also a few significant deposition patterns and calcified bone fragments, all of which suggest a sacrificial pyre site. The late LaTène to early Roman period, non-Roman material consisted of dress accessories, tools, implements and possible spear-heads. By contrast, the Roman military finds were very different and included 100 shoe nails, a helmet crest holder, 3 daggers, 3 artillery bolts, 20 artillery points (Geschützspitzen), and more than 350 arrow heads. To judge from the fact that one of the artillery bolts bore the stamp of the 19 legion, these weapons might be associated with fighting during the Alpine campaign of 15BC. But it remains unclear whether they were just a ritual deposit left on the Döttenbichel after the war, or whether they represent actual fighting on the site. How the latter would relate to the site's use as a sacrificial pyre site remains open to debate, however. If one assumes a purely ritual deposition of contemporary metal objects, then the site remained in use from the first half of the 1st century BC (LaTène D1) to about 50AD.

Ritual sites and ritual structures in the Roman period

By contrast to the sacrificial pyre sites just mentioned, we have no archaeological evidence for ritual buildings in Raetia that show continuity from the pre-Roman Iron Age into the Roman period. Imperial period cult structures are known from towns of all sizes (coloniae, municipia and vici), as well as in connection with rural sites (villas and road stations) or as roadside shrines. But no remote, independent cult sites with several buildings (including accommodation) have yet been found in the study area.

Architecturally, the most sophisticated sanctuary form was the Mediterranean style podium temple, in which a peripteros, pseudoperpteros or prostylos design temple stood on a stone podium, accessed via a perron at its front. The type is so far known only from larger towns in Raetia, such as Bregenz / Brigantium (Stadt Bregenz; Vorarlberg) / A and Kempten / Cambodunum (Stadt Kempten; Bayern) / D, and from the vicus of Lauingen-Faimingen / Phoebiana (Kr. Dillingen a.d. Donau; Bayern) / D. At least one more sanctuary of this type has been postulated for the provincial capital Augsburg / Augusta Vindelicum (Stadt Augsburg; Bayern) / D, but no ritual sites have yet been found in the town.

It is only possible to identify the deity worshiped at one of these sites, with any confidence: Lauingen-Faimingen. This temple complex was probably dedicated to Apollo Grannus and lay a short distance from the edge of the high terrace of the old Danube channel (currently occupied by the River Brenz) in the centre of the town-like vicus, and immediately west of the possible forum site. It consisted of a pseudo- peripteral temple with Tuscan columns, which faced south towards the river. This stood in a courtyard, lined on three sides by double-porticoes, and its rear wall was integrated into the facade of a simple portico. The temple overlay the remains of a timber predecessor. This had been built in a palisaded enclosure in the 140s AD and became associated with a square mudbrick/wattle-and-daub structure, on brick and mortar foundations, when the palisade was abandoned. The original enclosure, the buildings within it, and the numerous finds deposited in the area (pottery and animal bones) are consistent with a Gallo-Roman sanctuary, but it is not clear, whether this was already dedicated to Apollo Grannus.

By 160 AD at the latest, the early sanctuary was completely dismantled to make room for the podium temple already described. Before this was built, however, two different structures were started and then abandoned while still at the foundation stage. These were a Gallo-Roman temple, with an ambulatory on three sides, and a building integrated into the complex's rear wall. This change of plan suggests that the people who commissioned the shrine were initially uncertain as to what to build, and only eventually decided on the freestanding Roman podium temple.

The same type of temple was also built for the Bregenz capitolium, whose postulated association with the Capitoline triad (Jupiter, Juno and Minerva) rests on the fact that the preserved cella foundations suggest a tripartite internal division. The temple stood in a walled enclosure, with access via a portico style entrance hall that opened onto one of the town's main thoroughfares. Between the hall and the comparatively small podium perron, lay the remains of the main altar. There does not seem to have been any architectural link between the temple complex and the town's forum to the east. Indeed they were separated by two residential blocks. The forum itself contained a further freestanding cult structure, but little can be said about its original two-roomed design, thanks to its state of preservation and the level of archaeological recording.

A more direct link between the main temple and the forum can be seen at Kempten, where the large rectangular central square was completely redesigned in the Flavian period and had a prostylos temple integrated so that its four facade columns lined up with those of the surrounding porticoes. The floor-levels of both temple and portico were higher than the square, thus creating the impression of a low podium. Otherwise the temple was distinguished by its impressive facade, which is likely to have been significantly higher than the surrounding porticoes.

A structure of similar dimensions probably once rose above the apsed rooms that occupied the opposite side to the temple, but on a slightly different alignment. This was either the curia (the assembly room for the decuriones, Kempten's town council) or an Augusteum. The latter would have been the assembly building of the Augustales, who supervised the Imperial cult, and the forum temple might either have served this cult or that of the Capitoline triad. The function of a further, smaller podium temple remains unclear, however. This was again on a different alignment from the forum temple and faced further towards the southwest. It lacked a temenos enclosure and stood on an apparently open area between the forum and the nearby southern suburb of Cambodunum.

The "Sacred Area", which immediately adjoined the forum, was almost certainly dedicated to the Imperial cult. In the middle of a (238.1 x 178.95m (4.26 ha)) rectangular, open walled enclosure stood a monumental altar with a perron, of which the foundations have been excavated. The decumanus, one of the town's two main streets, was directly aligned on this altar. Indeed its original design bypassed the forum and ended right at the "Sacred Area's" main entrance. On passing through the latter, one reached a similarly walled enclosed entrance court on the same alignment. This opened onto the main area and offered a clear view of the altar.

From the Flavian period onwards, the eastern end of the decumanus was blocked by a new forum, whose imposing entrance now opened onto the east Forum’s portico, opposite the old entrance court of the "sacred Area". Gilded statue fragments have been found in both the forum and the alter area, and some idea of what the latter would have looked like can probably be gained from coin images of a similar altar from Lyon / Lugdunum (dep. Rhone; Rhone-Alpes) / F. These show an inscription that reads "ROM(ae) ET AUG(usto)", which stresses a link to the imperial cult. The sacrifices at the ara reaffirmed the provincial assembly’s (conventus) (and thus the constituent Gallic tribes’) loyalty to the Imperial family. A similar cult and assembly centre was founded for the German tribes in the Augustan period, as the "Ara Ubiorum" in Cologne (Stadt Köln; Nordrhein-Westfalen) / D, which assumed the creation of a province of Germania, mostly east of the Rhine. The ara is currently only known from literary and epigraphic sources, but we are probably quite justified, in using the analogy to suggest that the large sacred area in Kempten was designed as the meeting place for a Raetian provincial assembly. More recent research has suggested that Cambondunum was the province’s first capital, which would make the idea of an assembly area in Kempten even more plausible.

The large open area around the Kempten altar was clearly designed to hold large numbers of people, but Raetia currently lacks architectural links (viewing axes, alignments) between sanctuaries and public assembly areas such as theatres or amphitheatres. Upper Germany and Gaul had numerous ritual theatres in the immediate vicinity of sanctuaries, or directly linked to them, which apparently served as assemblies for local tribes or septs (pagi). In Raetia, by contrast, we can only assume different habits or places of assembly: perhaps including (i.a.) gatherings at the non-architectural sacrificial pyre sites described above.

There is a huge gulf in architectural pretension between these and the Mediterranean- style podium temples, which was at least partially filled by so-called Gallo-Roman temples and smaller shrines (aediculae). Gallo-Roman temples were widespread in Raetia, but never common, and their origins lie at least partly in the Celtic timber building tradition. This can be seen in various post-built structures with surrounding ambulatories found at late LaTène Viereckschanzen, but the type only really began to flourish under Roman influence, in the early Imperial period. Its main characteristic was a comparatively high (in relation to its ground area) central cella, whose roofline rose well above that of the surrounding porticoes/ambulatories, and the latter could be open porticoes or fully enclosed corridors.

Their ground plans were usually square to rectangular, but round and polygonal sites are also known. The rectangular-square type is predominant in Raetia, with the single exception of a round example from Pfünz (Kr. Eichstätt; Bayern) / D, which lay on a conspicuous spur near the auxiliary fort’s north-west corner. Most can be classified as "normal" Gallo-Roman temples, rather than the most common alternative, the "classicising" type. The latter showed stronger Mediterranean influence, and had low podia and clear, off-set entrance halls (pronaos), but none are yet known in the study area. Raetian Gallo-Roman temples can occur by themselves, or accompanied by smaller shrines. They can also be seen in larger groups, as parts of enclosed temple complexes or compounds and, in major settlements such as Bregenz and Kempten, they seem to be most common on the fringes of the town centre.

Where possible these complexes favoured slightly exposed positions: e.g. the edge of the settlement terrace at Bregenz, or a 30m high spur above the Iller at Kempten. At Regensburg-Ziegetsdorf (Stadt Regensburg; Bayern) / D a Mercury sanctuary was positioned on the Ziegetsberg, along the road to Augsburg, in such a way that it offered travellers their first (or last) view of the legionary fortress and canabae of Reginum. Raetian sanctuaries may, so far, lack long continuous histories from the Iron Age on, but it is clear that some, such as the Kempten complex, had simpler, timber structures (with cill-beam or post-built construction) preceding the stone temples. Similar features at the roadside settlement/villa of "Steinige Braike" in Sontheim an der Brenz (Kr. Heidenheim; Baden-Württemberg) / D, contained several cult structures that seems to have developed into a full Gallo-Roman temple when converted to stone (or at least timber framing on stone foundations).

On the site of the later Gallo-Roman temple (N2), a four-post structure (V) was built c. 100 AD, which was replaced by a square timber-framed building (N1). In the first half of the 2nd century, this was replaced by a stone temple, which followed the same alignment and was only marginally larger in area. In addition to coloured interior wall plaster, part of the surviving external stonework was also plastered and then had ashlar patterns drawn in, suggesting that the ambulatory was of the closed corridor type. The temple only survived into the mid 2nd century, when it was replaced by a rectangular stone building (I1), which was itself rebuilt after a fire in 180AD. It is uncertain, however, whether these successor structures were temples or whether the older buildings’ ritual functions were transferred to another part of the site. A total of 6-8 cult structures of different periods have been identified in the area of the villa/road station and this remarkably high number reinforces the public character of the site. For, in addition to its role as a farm and a road station, it probably also functioned as a sanctuary of regional importance. The structures included the Gallo-Roman temples (Bau C and N), an apsed room (Bau E) that was later added to the corridor of Gallo-Roman temple C, at least two rectangular or trapezoidal walled enclosures (H and J) that may have housed a cult image (in H), an aediculae, two (possibly open) hall-like structures (B and Q), and a possible temple in antis. The organisation of a sanctuary and agricultural buildings which lay next to each other in the road station and villa at Sontheim is more speculative, but the composition of the group of ritual structures corresponds on the whole with what we know of other enclosed temple complexes.

At present, Kempten is probably the best understood temple complex in Raetia. It was built by or before the reign of Tiberius, but the gradual change from timber to stone buildings does not seem to have started until the Flavian period, and continued well into the mid 2nd century. The stone phase consisted of a U-shaped double portico, which enclosed the sanctuary on three sides, while the fourth side, on the northern edge of the spur, remained open. Within the area stood at least 12 buildings, amongst them a large Gallo-Roman temple (Bau 4), a large rectangular ritual building (Bau 3) to which an apse was later added, at least 7 shrines in the form of small prostylos temples or temples in antis (Bau 2, 6, 8, 9, 11, 12 and 18), two possibly roofed podia (Bau 13 and 20), a small aedicula for the display of a cult image (Bau 16), a possible dais for offerings (Bau 10), a round sacrificial altar with a central pit for burnt offerings (Bau 7), and a possible base for a larger statuary dedication (Bau 1), such as a Jupiter column. The most common were the shrines, which were the simplest and smallest temple type, and these are often found as one-off buildings, as well as accompanying larger temples. They were used in cemeteries and as roadside shrines, and they also appear as private religious monuments, for example at villas.

As an example of the type, we could take a small rectangular building with a tiled roof and floor that was found c. 60m outside the northern enclosure wall of a large villa at Meßkirch (Kr. Sigmaringen; Baden-Württemberg) / D. An altar found in the remains was dedicated to Diana, and its position would suggest that it belonging to the villa, but the surrounding population might also have used it. Other sanctuaries with similar semi-public characters are also known from both private and military contexts, with one probable example being the small temple complex on the Weinberg near Eining (Stadt Neustadt a.d. Donau; Kr. Kehlheim; Bayern) / D.

The small temple with its two column entrance had a 3.5 x 4.3m cella, whose raised floor was reached via several steps, like a podium. The interior held cult images of Mars and Victoria. The temple’s rear wall was bonded with the enclosure wall of an almost square, 8.2 x 8.05m temenos, whose entrance lay in the north, immediately in line with that of the cella. Outside the temenos and opposite its entrance, lay a further building, whose alignment shows a clear relationship to the sanctuary, and its internal division (a central corridor with three rooms on each side) suggests military accommodation. The foundations of another building that were found alongside, were probably those of a watchtower, which could have served as a signalling relay between the fort of Abusina/Eining and the Limes line to the north. The surviving features suggest that the tower was in use for some time before its accommodation and the sanctuary were merged into an architectural unity. But it remains unclear whether the barrack held only the tower crew, or whether it also housed soldiers, who came to the site as pilgrims. The reason for its construction are also unknown, but it can be dated by a building inscription to 226-229 AD.

The next rank down from these small temples were the cult monuments, altars and dedications, which were erected by private and public donors or by groups of worshipers in a temple’s surroundings. It is worth noting in this context, however, that Jupiter columns, which are such a common feature in southern Lower Germany, Gallia Belgica and northern Upper Germany, are almost entirely absent from Raetia, either on public or private ground.

These monuments, which are always dedicated to Jupiter Optimus Maxims, consist of a Corinthian column, whose scale or figure decorated shaft is almost always mounted on a base that usually carries reliefs of four deities (‘Viergötterstein’). Occasionally there is a second base between the Viergötterstein and the shaft, which shows the deities of the days of the week and is thus called a ‘Wochengötterstein’. The whole monument is crowned with a Jupiter statue, either enthroned or standing, or with a figured group. The latter can be Jupiter and his consort Juno enthroned, or Jupiter as charioteer or cuirassed cavalryman riding down a giant, and local design preferences can be detected within the monuments’ overall distribution area (mainly north-east Gaul and the German provinces). Apart from a few examples from Regensburg and the provincial capital Augsburg, the current corpus seems to be concentrated on the Limes hinterland. They are usually represented by altar fragments (there was usually one directly associated with the monument), but we also have a few ‘Viergöttersteine’, and the remains of scaled or floral-patterned columns and figured capitals, although the latter could also have come from the scaled roof ridges of Danubian-Raetian pillar graves.

Remains of the characteristic crowning figures are hardly found at all in Raetia, except for a few pieces, of which some may be doubtful. It is, thus, striking, that we have fragments of three Jupiter and Giant groups from the fort vicus at Weißenburg i. Bay (Kr. Weißenburg-Gunzenhausen; Bayern) / D. The selection of this particular sculpture type, and the sun, or wheel of thunder that was added to one of the groups, emphasises the links between the Raetian Jupiter columns and those of neighbouring Upper Germany.

Christian Miks



General introductions:

Altjohann 1995 M. Altjohann, Bemerkungen zum Ursprung des gallo-römischen Umgangstempels. In: W. Czysz / C.-M. Hüssen / H.-P. Kuhnen / C. S. Sommer / G. Weber, Provinzialrömische Forschungen. Festschrift für Günter Ulbert zum 65. Geburtstag. Veröffentlichung des Archäologischen Forschungszentrums Ingolstadt (Espelkamp 1995) 169ff.

Altjohann 1995 M. Altjohann, Gallo-römische Umgangstempel und Bauten in Viereckschanzen. In: G. Wieland (Hrsg.), keltische Viereckschanzen. Einem Rätsel auf der Spur (Stuttgart 1999) 105ff.

Bellot u.a. 1985 J. Bellot / W. Czysz / G. Krahe (Hrsg.), Forschungen zur Provinzialrömischen Archäologie in Bayerisch-Schwaben. Schwäbische Geschichtsquellen und Forschungen 14 (Augsburg 1985).

Czysz u.a. 1995 W. Czysz / K. Dietz / Th. Fischer / H.-J. Kellner, Die Römer in Bayern (Stuttgart 1995).

Dietz u.a. 1985 K. Dietz / G. Weber, Diis Deabusque omnibus – allen Göttern und Göttinnen. In: Katalog Augsburg 1985, 213ff.

Gschlössl 2006 R. Gschlössl, Im Schmelztiegel der Religionen. Göttertausch bei Kelten, Römern und Germanen. Zaberns Bildbände zur Archäologie (Mainz 2006).

Horne u.a. 1980 P. D. Horne / A. C. King, Romano-Celtic Temples in Continental Europe: A Gazetteer of those with Known Plans. In: W. Rodwell (Hrsg.), Temples, Churches and Religion: Recent Research in Roman Britain with a Gazetteer of Romano-Celtic Temples in Continental Europe. BAR British Series 77 (Oxford 1980) 369ff.

Katalog Bregenz 1985 Vorarlberger Landesmuseum (Hrsg.), Das roemische Brigantium. Ausstellungskatalog Bregenz (Bregenz 1985).

Katalog Augsburg 1985 Die Römer in Schwaben. Jubiläumsausstellung 2000 Jahre Augsburg. Arbeitshefte des Bayerischen Landesamtes für Denkmalpflege 27 (München 1985).

Krämer 1966 W. Krämer, Prähistorische Brandopferplätze. In: R. Degen / W. Drack / R. Wyss, Helvetia antiqua [Festschrift E. Vogt] (Zürich 1966) 111ff.

Maier 1985 R. A. Maier, Römerzeitliche Brandopferplätze – Zeugnisse alpenrätischer Volksreligion. In: Katalog Augsburg 1985, 219ff.

Weber 1985 G. Weber, Jupitersäulen in Rätien. In: Bellot u.a. 1985, 269ff.

Weiss 1997 R.-M. Weiss, Prähistorische Brandopferplätze in Bayern. Internationale Archäologie 35 (Espelkamp 1997).

Zanier 2004 W. Zanier, Gedanken zur Besiedelung der Spätlatène- und frühen römischen Kaiserzeit zwischen Alpenrand und Donau. In: Hüssen u.a. 2004 C.-M. Hüssen / W. Irlinger / W. Zanier (Hrsg.), Spätlatènezeit und frühe römische Kaiserzeit zwischen Alpenrand und Donau. Akten des Kolloquiums in Ingolstadt am 11. und 12. Oktober 2001. Kolloquien zur Vor- und Frühgeschichte 8 (Bonn 2004) 237ff.

Zemmer-Plank 2002 L. Zemmer-Plank (Hrsg.), Kult der Vorzeit in den Alpen. Opfergaben – Opferplätze – Opferbrauchtum (Bolzano-Bozen 2002).


Augsburg (Stadt Augsburg; Bayern) / D; Iupitersäulen:

Bakker 1984 L. Bakker, Neue Inschriftenfunde aus Augusta Vindelicum-Augsburg. Arch. Jahr Bayern 1984, 110f.

Weber 1985 G. Weber, Jupitersäulen in Rätien. In: Bellot u.a. 1985, 269ff. Nr. F12,1-2.


Aalen-Unterkochen (Kr. Aalen; Baden-Württemberg) / D; mögliches Teil einer Iupitersäule:

Haug u.a. 1914 F. Haug / G. Sixt, Die römischen Inschriften und Bildwerke Württembergs 2(Stuttgart 1914) 123f. Nr. 59.

Weber 1985 G. Weber, Jupitersäulen in Rätien. In: Bellot u.a. 1985, 273f. Nr. F13,4.


Bregenz (Stadt Bregenz; Vorarlberg) / A; Forumtempel, Capitol und gallo-römischer Tempelbezirk:

Jenny 1889 S. Jenny, Bauliche Ueberreste von Brigantium: I. Das Forum. Jahresber. Vorarlberger Mus.-Ver. 28, 1889, 9ff.

Jenny 1893 S. Jenny, Bauliche Ueberreste von Brigantium: IV. Tempelanlage. Jahresber. Vorarlberger Mus.-Ver. 32, 1893, 9ff.

Jenny 1898 S. Jenny, Bauliche Ueberreste von Brigantium. Mitt. K. K. Central-Comm. Baudenkmale 24, 1898, 78ff.

Kandler 1992 M. Kandler, Bilddokumente zum Forum von Brigantium. In: Vorarlberger Landesmuseum (Hrsg.), Archäologie in Gebirgen [Festschrift E. Vonbank]. Schriften des Vorarlberger Landesmuseums - Reihe A 5 (Brengenz 1992) 131ff.


Eining (Stadt Neustadt a.d. Donau; Kr. Kelheim; Bayern) / D; Tempelbezirk Weinberg:

Fischer u.a. 1984 Th. Fischer / K. Spindler, Das römische Grenzkastell Abusina-Eining. Führer zu ärchäologischen Denkmälern in Bayern – Niederbayern 1 (Stuttgart 1984) 58ff.

Reinecke 1927 P. Reinecke, Römische und frühmittelalterliche Denkmäler vom Weinberg bei Eining a.d. Donau. In: Festschrift zur Feier des fünfundsiebzigjährigen Bestehens des Römisch-Germanischen Central-Museums zu Mainz (Mainz 1927) 157ff.


Kempten (Stadt Kempten; Bayern) / D; Forumtempel, Altarbezirk und gallo-römischer Tempelbezirk:

Führer Kempten 1998 Kulturamt der Stadt Kempten (Hrsg.), APC – Archäologischer Park Cambodunum. 1. Abschnitt: Der Gallorömische Tempelbezirk 4(Kempten 1998).

Kleiss 1962 W. Kleiss, Die öffentlichen Bauten von Cambodunum. Baubeschreibung und Rekonstruktion. Materialhefte zur Bayerischen Vorgeschichte 18 (Kallmünz / Opf. 1962).

Weber 1985a G. Weber, Der gallorömische Tempelbezirk von Kempten. In: Katalog Augsburg 1985, 226ff.

Weber 1985b G. Weber, Der große heilige Bezirk in Kempten – Provinziallandtage in Raetien. In: Katalog Augsburg 1985, 230ff.

Weber 2000 G. Weber (Hrsg.), Cambodunum-Kempten. Erste Hauptstadt der römischen Provinz Raetien? Zaberns Bildbände zur Archäologie (Mainz 2000).

Weber 2000a G. Weber, Das Forum der Römerstadt Kempten-Cambodunum im Allgäu. In: L. Wamser (Hrsg.), Die Römer zwischen Alpen und Nordmeer. Zivilisatorisches Erbe einer europäischen Militärmacht. Ausstellungskatalog Rosenheim. Schriftenreihe der Archäologischen Staatssammlung 1 (Mainz 2000) 95ff.


Lauingen-Faimingen (Kr. Dillingen a.d. Donau; Bayern) / D; Podiumtempel:

Eingartner 1985 J. Eingartner, Das Heiligtum des Apollo Grannus und der Vicus von Faimingen im Lichte neuerer Ausgrabungen. In: Bellot u.a. 1985, 257ff.

Eingartner 1985a J. Eingartner, Phoebiana – Römerstadt und Apollo Grannus-Heiligtum in Faimingen. In: Katalog Augsburg 1985, 223ff.

Eingartner u.a. 1993 J. Eingartner / P. Eschbaumer / G. Weber, Faimingen-Phoebiana I: Der römische Tempelbezirk in Faimingen-Phoebiana. Limesforschungen 24 (Mainz 1993).


Meßkirch (Kr. Sigmaringen; Baden-Württemberg) / D; Heiligtum bei Villa rustica:

Naeher 1882 J. Näher, Die Ausgrabung der römischen Niederlassung genannt die Altstatt bei Meßkirch. Bonner Jahrb. 74, 1882, 55f.

Filtzinger u.a. 1986 P. Filtzinger / D. Planck / B. Cämmerer (Hrsg.), Die Römer in Baden-Württemberg 3(Stuttgart 1986) 442ff.

Planck 2005 D. Planck (Hrsg.), Die Römer in Baden-Württemberg. Römerstätten und Museen von Aalen bis Zwiefalten (Stuttgart 2005) 210f.


Oberammergau (Kr. Garmisch-Partenkirchen) / D; Opfer-/Kampfplatz auf dem Döttenbichel:

Zanier 1994 W. Zanier, Eine Oberammergauer Passion im Jahre 15 v. Chr.? Arch. Jahr Bayern 1994, 97ff.

Zanier 2002a W. Zanier, Opferplätze im oberen Ammertal aus der Spätlatène- und frühen römischen Kaiserzeit. In: Zemmer-Plank 2002, 841ff.


Pfünz (Kr. Eichstätt; Bayern) / D; Rundtempel:

Koethe 1933 H. Koethe, Die keltischen Rund- und Vielecktempel der Kaiserzeit. Ber. RGK 23, 1933, 84f.

Winkelmann 1901 Fr. Winkelmann, Das Kastell Pfünz. In: ORL Abt. B Nr. 73 (1901) 10f.


Regensburg-Ziegetsdorf (Stadt Regensburg; Bayern) / D; Tempelbezirk:

Steinmetz 1935 G. Steinmetz, Vom Merkurtempel auf dem Ziegetsdorfer Berg. I. Bericht. Verhand. Hist. Ver. Oberpfalz 85, 347ff.

Steinmetz 1935 G. Steinmetz, Vom Merkurtempel auf dem Ziegetsdorfer Berg. II. Bericht. Verhand. Hist. Ver. Oberpfalz 86, 434ff.

Steinmetz 1937 G. Steinmetz, Fundnachrichten – Ulrichsmuseum Regensburg. Bayer. Vorgeschbl. 14, 1937, 102ff.

Dietz u.a. 1979 K. Dietz / U. Osterhaus / S. Rieckhoff-Pauli / K. Spindler, Regensburg zur Römerzeit 2(Regensburg 1979) 265ff.

Dietz u.a. 1996 K. Dietz / Th. Fischer, Die Römer in Regensburg (Regensburg 1996) 144ff.


Schwangau (Kr. Ostallgäu; Bayern) / D; Brandopferplatz im Forggensee:

Maier 1985a R. A. Maier, Ein römerzeitlicher Brandopferplatz bei Schwangau und andere Zeugnisse einheimischer Religion in der Provinz Rätien. In: Bellot u.a. 1985, 231ff.

Zanier 1999 W. Zanier, Der spätlatène- und römerzeitliche Brandopferplatz im Forggensee (Gde. Schwangau). Münchner Beiträge zur Vor- und Frühgeschichte 52 (München 1999).

Zanier 2002 W. Zanier, Spätlatène-/römerzeitlicher Brandopferplatz im Forggensee, Gemeinde Schwangau. In: Zemmer-Plank 2002, 833ff.


Sontheim a.d. Brenz (Kr. Heidenheim; Baden-Württemberg) / D; Villa rustica/Staßenstation mit Heiligtümern:

Nuber 1982 H. U. Nuber, Römische Sanktuarien in Sontheim/Brenz, Kreis Heidenheim. Arch. Ausgr. Baden-Württemberg 1982, 124ff.

Nuber u.a. 1986 H. U. Nuber / G. Seitz, Ausgrabungen in Sontheim/Brenz, Kreis Heidenheim. Arch. Ausgr. Baden-Württemberg 1986, 170ff.

Planck 2005 D. Planck (Hrsg.), Die Römer in Baden-Württemberg. Römerstätten und Museen von Aalen bis Zwiefalten (Stuttgart 2005) 321ff.

Seitz 2005 G. Seitz, Tempel und Heiligtümer. Geben und Nehmen als religiöses Prinzip. In: Archäologisches Landesmuseum Baden-Württemberg (Hrsg.), Imperium Romanum. Roms Provinzen an Neckar, Rhein und Donau. Begleitband zur Ausstellung des Landes Baden-Württemberg im Kunstgebäude Stuttgart (Stuttgart 2005) 209.


Weißenburg (Kr. Weißenburg-Gunzenhausen; Bayern) / D; Iupitersäulen:

Dinkelmeier u.a. 1987 M. Dinkelmeier / M. Erdrich / M. Klein, Ausgrabungen im römischen Kastellvicus von Weißenburg i. Bay. Arch. Jahr Bayern 1987, 114ff.

Fabricius 1906 E. Fabricius, Das Kastell Weissenburg. In: ORL Abt. B Nr. 72 (1906) 47 Nr. 19 Taf. 13,8.

Weber 1985 G. Weber, Jupitersäulen in Rätien. In: Bellot u.a. 1985, 275 Nr. F14,1 Abb. 6.