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The military district (from 90AD: province) of Lower Germany consisted of the area north of the Vinxtbach (near Andernach) on the Rhine, to the Rhine estuary on the North Sea. According to Caesar it was occupied by the "Germani cisrhenani", at the time of the Gallic War, who he said were tribes of Germanic origin, that had settled on Gallic territory west of the Rhine. In the southwest, the Mittelgebirgszone hill country already shows a marked reduction in the characteristic elements of late Latène oppida civilisation, and influences from Germany east of the Rhine are increasingly felt further north. Nevertheless, it has so far been difficult to identify the "Germani cisrhenani" culturally, and to differentiate them and their area from that of their neighbours. It is readily apparent, that theirs must have been a hybrid culture, whose local form was determined by various external influences. The south loess belt, for example, initially still showed links to the late Celtic culture of the Hunsrück-Eifel-area and the Ardennes, but this influence seems to have weakened on the eve of the Gallic War, with the abandonment of numerous sites (including defended places) during LaTène D1. The war then led to major population shifts, which reached their zenith with the apparent decimation and political annihilation of the Eburones, who had, until then, been the most powerful tribe in the area north of the Eifel.
A power vacuum, with limited settlement, seems to have existed in the area before the Roman government undertook a planned relocation of the Ubii during the second half of the 1st century BC. According to the literary sources, this apparently voluntary movement of a pro-Roman group added a Celtic influenced German tribe from the Rhine right bank to the provincial mix. Their main centre, Cologne, was founded as a planned town around the turn of the millennium. By contrast, the Sugambri, another right bank tribe, were defeated after heavy fighting and resettled c. 8BC around Xanten, near the legionary fortress of Vetera. They then remained recognisable throughout the early Roman period as the "Cugerni".
Such a start could hardly be worse for a study that tries to identify possible cult continuities between the pre-Roman Iron Age and the Roman period in southern Germania Inferior. For, aside from an indigenous, Celtic-German substrate, an increased occurrence of Germanic cults should be possible in the late 1st century BC whilst, on the Rhine, Roman military installations and their associated civilian settlements had already begun to spread Mediterranean religious ideas.
Almost to nothing is known about late pre-Roman Iron Age cult sites in southern Lower Germany. All that can safely be said is that the Viereckschanzen (four-sided defended enclosures), which are typical of the Late Celtic oppida civilization and may have been sanctuaries, at least in part, are completely absent from the study area. Likewise, no ritual shafts or other cult facilities have yet been attested for the late Iron Age. There are, though, vague indications of possible links with other Gallic regions, in the form of a number of postholes in the settlement of Hambach 382 bei Niederzier (Kr. Düren; Nordrhein-Westfalen / D). Seven post pits were found inside the defences in areas that were otherwise sparsely occupied. There were no other building connections, but this and the fact that the posts had been carefully removed when the area was abandoned suggest that they my have been ritual in nature.
A hoard of three sheet gold torcs and 46 late Celtic gold coins, could be interpreted as a sacrificial deposit, or as treasure hidden in troubled times, and the former would further underline the role of the posts. According to the dateable finds, Hambach 382 was abandoned in the 1st half of the 1st century BC (Latène D1) and this agrees with similar observations at other open and defended sites in the region. For a long time this model and the resulting sparse settlement pattern was blamed on the "slaughter" of the Eburones mentioned in the literary sources. More recently, however, it has emerged that most of these places were already abandoned by the eve of the Gallic War and, over the last few years, evidence has been growing for non-descript post settings and ditched features, which might represent a reduced regional population persisting up to the Roman development of the rural landscape in the 1st century AD. The identification of pre-Roman ritual sites remains a desideratum in this context, but it is already noteworthy that none of the Roman period ritual sites show clear indications of pre-Roman cult activity. Even allowing for the fact that some older excavations may not have recognized earlier timber structures, it thus seems that most Roman cult sites only came into existence in the mid 1st century AD at the earliest.
To judge from the literary evidence, however, there may have been a relatively large number of open-air sites (e.g. sacred groves) with no built features. Similar ritual sites or assembly places are also known from Germania Libera and, according to Tacitus (Germania 9), the local population believed that it was not fitting for the sanctity of the heavens, to enclose gods in walls. The German influence might thus have further reinforced an existing habit of open ritual sites in parts of Germania Inferior. This raises the important question of how far we might expect to find any architecturally developed, and so archaeologically provable, ritual sites from the time before the early Roman period, and its strong Roman cultural influences. Indeed the difficulty in securely identifying simple ritual sites has already been demonstrated in the case of the potential ritual posts from the late Latène-settlement of Hambach 382 bei Niederzier (Kr. Düren; Nordrhein-Westfalen / D).
Early Roman period cult sites are found at regional centres, especially the two coloniae: Cologne (Stadt Köln; Nordrhein-Westfalen / D) and Xanten (Kr. Wesel; Nordrhein-Westfalen / D), as well as at smaller vici and sometimes completely away from larger settlements. In the latter case we see small roadside shrines or, more importantly, either independent ritual features with a larger catchment area, or sites linked to villas, although as yet, formal temples in association with villas are rare.
The architectural apex of cult provision in southern Lower Germany (as in other provinces) was the Mediterranean style podium temple. Here a rectangular podium provided the base for a peripteral-, pseudoperipteral or prostylos-temple, and was accessed by a perron on one of the narrow sides. Such buildings have so far only been found in the coloniae but, at each town, the podium substructure suggests that they should be reconstructed as having a triple (or at least three aisled) cella, so they are thus referred to as capitolia.
The Xanten capitolium faced northeast, and several different reconstructions have been proposed for its superstructure. It lay right next to the forum, but without being part of its overall design. The Cologne equivalent was isolated on a low rise in the southeast corner of the walled town. Its main façade faced east towards the Rhine and this might also have been true of the only other podium temple yet known in Cologne.
This much smaller structure stood in the northeastern part of town (under the modern Dom), an area that was markedly residential in character and, as with the preceding cases, little is known about its original superstructure. By contrast, we are able to reconstruct the second podium temple at Xanten, the so-called "Hafentempel" (harbour temple), as a southeast facing, Corinthian peripteral temple, i.e. one with a surrounding portico of Corinthian columns, but no evidence exists for its original cult.
The temple lay on the northern city wall, close to the central harbour gate, and formed the centrepiece of a plaza or square that was completely surrounded by porticoes. The Xanten capitolium may have stood in a similar enclosed area, in Insula 26. The Cologne capitolium certainly did, although it is not clear whether the porticoes also stretched along the inside of the heavily built temenos wall. A large rectangular, ditched temenos enclosure has also been found around a podium temple in Krefeld- Elfrath (Stadt Krefeld; NRW / D).
The sanctuary at Krefeld-Elfrath apparently lay in open country, with no indication of a surrounding settlement, and it is currently the only example of this temple type outside the coloniae. According to the excavation and survey results, it was the only stone building within the temenos (and its immediate vicinity) but, thanks to the selective nature of the trenches, the existence of a possible lightly built, timber ancillary building at the edge of the complex cannot be proven. The temple may have been dedicated to Hercules Deusoniensis, and was apparently preceded by an open-air sanctuary that developed round an ash tree. Nothing survives of this tree, apart from its root pit and the imprints of its leaves on the temple’s wall plaster. The tree was already venerated in the 1st century AD and the sanctuary’s main entrance was clearly aligned on it. During the mid 2nd century a temple with an altar in front of it was built next to the tree. Numerous bread baking ovens found inside the sacred area were probably linked to ritual practices, for no residential buildings are currently known, and a ritual shaft and the foundation of a number of possible dedications provide more hints to the site’s ritual use. During the 3rd century, possibly under Postumus (260-269AD), whose coinage shows a close affinity to Hercules Deusoniensis, the shrine was decorated with high quality wall paintings and an enlarged staircase. Before the start of the 4th century, however, it was clearly targeted for demolition and the sanctuary was utterly destroyed. The combined evidence thus suggests that Krefeld-Elfrath was a ritual site of at least regional importance. It remains uncertain, however, whether it also served as a place of assembly for parts of the local tribe. For, by contrast to similar sanctuaries in Upper Germany and the Gallic provinces, we currently have no clear architectural links between religious structures and identifiable assembly buildings, e.g. between temples and theatres or amphitheatres. Little is known about the exact position and form of the Ara Ubiorum and its surroundings in Cologne, but while such gathering places must have existed in this central site for the imperial cult amongst the German tribes, the lack of cult theatres at any of the study area’s sanctuaries is striking. The areas around the better known Lower German sanctuaries can thus not stand comparison with those in parts of Gaul, which are known to have acted as assembly places for tribal sub-districts (pagi).
It remains uncertain if and to what extent the buildings with rectangular apses found in the Matrones sanctuaries of Eschweiler-Lohn-Fronhoven (Kr. Aachen; NRW / D) and Bad Münstereifel-Nöthen-Pesch (Kr. Euskirchen; NRW / D) were assembly rooms for the curiae, which were the associations (probably extended families, septs or clans) charged with the upkeep of the sanctuaries. Indeed, despite the unusual apse, it cannot be completely ruled out that both buildings may have been temples.
A more common Lower German type was the Gallo-Roman temple, a form that, though partially rooted in Gallo-Celtic timber architecture, blossomed under Roman-Mediterranean influence. The typical design was a central cella, (usually rectangular, but more rarely round or polygonal), whose roof rose well above that of a surrounding ambulatory, which could itself take the form of an open gallery or closed corridor.
Only the rectangular variant is currently known in southern Lower Germany, but this can be further split into "normal" and "classicising" versions. The latter type shows clear Roman influence. They are occasionally built on a podium, but they are usually characterised by a clearly defined entrance hall (pronaos), which breaks the vision of a building that would otherwise seem to face in all directions equally, by emphasising the entrance to the cella. Several are known in the area, for example the temples between the Büchel and Münsterthermen in Aachen/ Aquae Granni (Stadt Aachen, Nordrhein.Westfalen / D), and those from Kornelimünster / Varnenum (Stadt Aachen, NRW / D). Two imposing buildings found immediately inside Cologne’s western wall do not appear to be normal Gallo-Roman temples, to judge from their long rectangular form and enlarged entrance halls, but there is some doubt whether they were Gallo-Roman temples at all. Classicising Gallo-Roman temples can be found in Lower Germany from the later 1st century, but they usually tend to form part of later redevelopments on established sanctuaries from the 2nd century onwards.
Gallo-Roman temples can occur as isolated buildings, or accompanied by other small shrines/aediculae, or within temple complexes enclosed by walls or porticoes. By comparison with the neighbouring areas, the latter tend to be rather small, usually having no more than two temples, possibly complemented by single cult rooms without ambulatories. Where the topography allows it, the sanctuaries tend to occupy sites on the upper slopes of hills, if usually below the highest points. This can be seen in Aachen-Kornelimünster (Stadt Aachen, NRW / D), Bad Münstereifel-Nöthen-Pesch (Kr. Euskirchen; NRW / D), Barweiler (Kr. Ahrweiler; Rheinland-Pfalz / D), Eschweiler-Lohn-Fronhoven (Kr. Aachen; NRW / D), Nettersheim and Nettersheim-Zingsheim (Kr. Euskirchen; NRW / D), and they were thus highly visible from a distance and (most importantly) from neighbouring highways.
As already briefly mentioned, it has not yet been possible to trace the history of any Lower German sanctuary back over a lengthy period of time and we can give as an example, the development of the shrine of the Matrones Vallinehae on the Addig, a hill near Pesch, Bad Münstereifel-Nöthen (Kr. Euskirchen; NRW / D). The first architectural activity dates to the mid or second half of the 1st century AD. It is often assumed that there had been an earlier open-air sanctuary, however, and its open design seems to have been reflected in the early Roman shrine. The temenos enclosure (G) consisted of a timber paling with sandstone fence-posts, and surrounded two cult buildings with stone foundations (C’ and K), a possible granary (N) and a walled, apparently unroofed, yard (A). The latter may have housed a sacred tree and/ or been the place to erect dedications, some of which were reused as cheap building material in the sanctuary’s final phase. A well (H) supplied water for the entire site. In the second phase, which began around the second half of the 2nd century, temple C’ was replaced by a larger rectangular structure. There was also a round temple (M), which may have housed a statue of Jupiter under a roof supported by scale-patterned columns, although it is not certain whether this belonged to this phase. If so, it is unlikely that yard A remained in use, since the round temple’s foundations damaged its wall. The granary building (N) was also cut by a wall (a-b), which might suggest that the sanctuary’s central area was now surrounded by a stone enclosure. The surviving dedications would suggest that the cult reached its peak in period 2.
Period 3 was marked by a complete rebuilding of the entire shrine, which seems to date no earlier than the second quarter of the 4th century. This then remained in use until the whole complex ended at the start of the 5th century. It contained a "normal" Gallo-Roman temple (C), along with a classicising or basilican temple (B) and, as already discussed, some interpretations would have the latter be an assembly hall for the local curia in charge of the shrine’s use and maintenance. It is worth noting that both the cella and yard (or garden) of temple C copied the position and orientation of their earliest predecessors. The open ritual yard A, which may have been abandoned earlier, was also enlarged and redesigned with two more ancillary rooms (for votive offerings?). In the east, the sanctuary area was now defined by a long portico that integrated the well (H), which had remained in use since period 1, and the site also now contained two more rectangular, timber-framed buildings (D and F), whose function is unknown. If our current understanding is correct, the site’s chronology would thus suggest that it was only furnished with imposing architecture at a relatively late period. This was not always the case, as is demonstrated by a sanctuary at Aachen-Kornelimünster (Stadt Aachen; NRW / D). The gods venerated here included Varnenus/Varneno, whose function is unknown (local genius or a source deity?), and the possible fertility goddess Dea Sunuxsal, who was the patron of the Sunuci tribe, who settled between the Ubii and the Tungri. According to recent excavations the sanctuary existed until the mid 3rd century, but it appears to have reached its final appearance by the late 1st century AD (period III).
Two classicising Gallo-Roman temples (F, G) and at least four ancillary buildings, of unknown function (B, C2-3, D and L), also formed part of this shrine, but part of the temenos wall and a portico (P) that may have been linked to it, seem to belong to a later renovation (Period IV). The chronological position of buildings A, M, K, L and probably R (found by earlier excavations) remain unclear, but walls overlain by period III buildings, show that stone founded ancillary buildings (B, C1, D, E) stood in the same place in period II. At the same time the classicising Gallo-Roman temple G seems to have existed earlier, when another Gallo-Roman temple occupied the site of the later imposing temple F. The former was smaller, but its front was already furnished with a perron. The site is not yet fully published but period II is currently assumed to date to the pre-Flavian period. The earlier foundations (H), which were overlain by temple G, are so far the only remains of period I, and it is impossible to say, whether they already formed part of a ritual structure. A single LaTène C pottery fragment was found under this layer, but this is hardly enough to claim an origin for the sanctuary at the interface between the late Iron Age and the Roman period.
Gallo-Roman temples were already fairly imposing ritual building and are usually found in public places, but they can also occasionally occur near smaller villa sites, as Lower Germany’s smallest example illustrates.
This was found in the eastern part of the villa enclosure of Hambach 127 in Elzdorf-Etzweiler (Rhein-Erft-Kr.; NRW / D). It had an area of just 5 x 5.1m and its facade faced the open area in front of the main residence. No separate temple enclosure could be identified, but this may have consisted of a light fence or hedge, and a fragment of a dressed female statue, which may have belonged to the temple, was found in the residence. It remains unclear, given its small size, if the temple was just used by the villa inhabitants, or whether it might also have served the residents of nearby farms. Temples are rare on southern Lower German villa sites. Two Gallo-Roman examples have been found: one on a large, but still unpublished, estate at Weilerswist-Klein Vernich (Kr. Euskirchen; NRW) /D), and the other near a potential villa at Bedburg-Harff (Rhein-Erft-Kr.; NRW / D). Elsewhere, the shrines are usually single room structures, for which a ritual use is suggested. At Blankenheim-Hülchrath (Kr. Euskirchen; NRW / D), the building was separated from the rest of the farm by its own enclosure but, otherwise, they only tend to be slightly set apart from the other villa buildings, as at Jüchen-Hochneukirch (Umsiedlungsstandort Neuholz; Rhein-Kr. Neuss; NRW / D). In the absence of decisive evidence, such as architectural fragments or small finds, their interpretation must remain speculative.
A small rectangular structure with columns, in front of the villa Hambach 488 near Niederzier (Kr. Düren; NRW), can be securely identified as a sanctuary. The (3.5 x 2.1m) shrine (aedicula) lay about 80m from the residence, with its façade facing the southern enclosure wall, 30m away. In the interior, the foundations of the cult image could be identified; although it remains unknown what deity it was dedicated to. Aediculae of this kind represent the smallest form of sanctuary, and when found as isolated buildings, they are usually built on private ground, or as roadside shrines or cemetery chapels. At larger sanctuaries they tend to be ancillary structures to a larger main shrine, usually a Gallo-Roman temple.
Jupiter columns were a more common ritual building type on private ground. These were always dedicated to Jupiter Optimus Maximus and consisted of a decorated column crowned by a statue of the god. They were undoubtedly a mixture of Gallic and Roman elements, and the initial impetus for their development is usually assumed to be the erection of such a monument in Mainz between 59 and 66AD (Stadt Mainz; Rheinland-Pfalz / D; Province Germania superior). The inspiration for the shape may have been a column mentioned by Cicero (De divinatione 1,19-20), which was built in 63BC to commemorate a lightning strike on the Capitol in Rome. From an epigraphic and stylistic analysis of the known fragments, it would seem that they did not occur in Lower Germany before Hadrianic times, and the majority seem to date from the second half of the 2nd and the first half of the 3rd century AD.
With around 270 currently known examples, the study area together with Gallia Belgica and northern Germania Superior, is clearly the centre of distribution of this type of votive monument and, apart from exceptional outliers, the distribution also covers most of north-western Gaul. In Germania Inferior the densest cluster was around the provincial capital, Cologne and its hinterland, i.e. the loess belt in the southern half of the province. North of a line from Neuss to Roermond they become markedly rarer and only few examples are known. It should be noted, however, that the density of all known and excavated archaeological sites is much higher in the south, thanks to agriculture and lignite extraction, whilst the northern area is dominated by grazing land. Jupiter columns can be found in towns and vici, as well as in sanctuaries and villas, and over 20 examples are known from the provincial capital at Cologne. Sadly, too few dedications are known from Germania Inferior to make hard and fast statements about the social backgrounds of the dedicants, but an overall analysis shows that men (of various professions including soldiers and officials) are most common, and frequently made the dedication to fulfil a vow. Couples and women also occur, however, as do groups and associations, such as the "vicani Juliacenses", i.e. the inhabitants of Juelich (Kr. Düren NRW / D).
About a third of Lower German columns come from villas, which underlines their primary role as signs of private religiosity. As is shown by the column foundation and associated fragments from the villa of Hambach 488 near Niederzier (already mentioned), these monuments were positioned for optical effect and, in this case, the column stood in the centre of the farmyard between the residence and the aedicula. This also shows that, even on private ground, columns and temples were not mutually exclusive, although they do not seem to have formed a cult ensemble here. Even the construction of multiple columns cannot be ruled out on private land, as for example at the villa of Köln-Widdersdorf (Stadt Köln; NRW / D). The fragments are usually only found in secondary contexts, so the monuments’ original distribution over a farm remains uncertain. Apart from secondary usage as building material, fragments from demolished columns are also commonly found in abandoned wells, as at Cologne-Widdersdorf. Until recently such finds were thought to be the results of iconoclasm, i.e. the deliberate destruction and banning of the ritual images. But there is now evidence (especially from Upper Germany), which suggests that the columns were careful salvaged and ritually deposited in old wells or other shafts. The occasion and reason for this may have been the abandonment of the site, or their replacement with new cult images, but clear evidence for ritual burial in shafts is so far absent in Lower Germany. Such shafts are found in the immediate vicinity of architecturally embellished shrines such as Krefeld-Elfrath (Stadt Krefeld; NRW / D), but there is currently no other evidence for them, or for the continued ritual use of sacrificial shafts of the type known from Upper Germany. The same is also true for the deposition of offerings in springs or other watercourses, although this may well reflect a gap in research and its publication.
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Aachen (Stadt Aachen; Nordrhein-Westfalen) / D; Tempelbezirk zwischen Münster- und Büchelthermen:
Follmann-Schulz 1986 A.-B. Follmann-Schulz, Die römischen Tempelanlagen in der Provinz Germania inferior. In: Haase 1986, 689ff.
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Aachen-Kornelimünster (Stadt Aachen; Nordrhein-Westfalen) / D; Tempelbezirk:
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Bedburg-Harff (Rhein-Erft-Kr.; NRW) / D; Villa rustica(?) und Tempel:
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Elsdorf-Etzweiler (Rhein-Erft-Kr.; Nordrhein-Westfalen) / D; Villa rustica und Tempel Hambach 127:
Gaitzsch 2000 W. Gaitzsch, Drei Hügel: römischer Siedlungsplatz, Wald, Tagebau. Archäologie im Rheinland 2000, 73ff..
Gaitzsch 2005 W. Gaitzsch, Tempel und Jupitersäulen in villae rusticae. Archäologie im Rheinland 2005, 81f.
Heimberg 2002-2003 U. Heimberg, Römische Villen an Rhein und Maas. Bonner Jahrb. 202-203, 2002-2003, 136.
Eschweiler-Lohn-Fronhoven (Kr. Aachen; Nordrhein-Westfalen) / D; Tempelbezirk:
Follmann-Schulz 1986 A.-B. Follmann-Schulz, Die römischen Tempelanlagen in der Provinz Germania inferior. In: Haase 1986, 726ff.
Gaitzsch u.a. 1981 W. Gaitzsch / J. Hermanns, Das Matronenheiligtum von Eschweiler-Weisweiler, Kr. Aachen. In: Ausgrabungen im Katalog Bonn 1981 Rheinisches Landesmuseum (Hrsg.), Ausgrabungen im Rheinland '79/80. Führer des Rheinischen Landesmuseums Bonn Nr. 104 (Bonn 1981), 122ff.
Gaitzsch 1982 W. Gaitzsch, Ausgrabungen und Funde 1980: Eschweiler, Kr. Aachen. Bonner Jahrb. 182, 1982, 487ff.
Jüchen-Hochneukirch (Umsiedlungsstandort Neuholz; Rhein-Kr. Neuss; Nordrhein-Westfalen) / D; Villa rustica mit möglichem Heiligtum:
Andrikopoulou-Strack u.a. 1999 J.-N. Andrikopoulou-Strack / P. Enzenberger / K. Frank / C. Keller / N. Klän, Eine frührömische Siedlung in Jüchen-Neuholz. Überlegungen zur Siedlungskontinuität in der Lösbörde. Bonner Jahrb. 199, 1999, 141ff.
Keller 1997 C. Keller, Eine villa rustica in Hochneukirch. Archäologie im Rheinland 1997, 55ff.
Schuler 2000 A. Schuler, Abschlußgrabung in Hochneukirch: von der "Protovilla" zur villa rustica. Archäologie im Rheinland 2000, 69ff..
Heimberg 2002-2003 U. Heimberg, Römische Villen an Rhein und Maas. Bonner Jahrb. 202-203, 2002-2003, 142.
Köln (Stadt Köln; Nordrhein-Westfalen) / D; Tempel unter dem Dom, an der westlich Stadtmauer und unter S. Maria im Kapitol:
Doppelfeld 1957 O. Doppelfeld, Stand der Ausgrabungen in Köln 1957. In: Neue Ausgrabungen im Nahen Osten, Mittelmeerraum und in Deutschland. Bericht über die Tagung der Koldewey-Gesellschaft (Trier 1957), 45f.
Doppelfeld u.a. 1980 O. Doppelfeld / W. Weyers, Die Ausgrabungen im Dom zu Köln. Kölner Forschungen 1 (Mainz 1980).
Follmann-Schulz 1986 A.-B. Follmann-Schulz, Die römischen Tempelanlagen in der Provinz Germania inferior. In: Haase 1986, 735ff.
Fremersdorf 1950 F. Fremersdorf, Neue Beiträge zur Topographie des römischen Köln. Römisch-Germanische Forschungen 18 (Berlin 1950) 73ff.
Hellenkemper 1980 H. Hellenkemper, Der römische Tempel unter dem Dom. In: Römisch-Germanisches Zentralmuseum (Hrsg.), Köln II. Führer zu vor- und frühgeschichtlichen Denkmäler 38 (Mainz 1980) 30f.
Hellenkemper 1980a H. Hellenkemper, Das römische Kapitol. In: Römisch-Germanisches Zentralmuseum (Hrsg.), Köln III. Führer zu vor- und frühgeschichtlichen Denkmäler 39 (Mainz 1980) 23ff.
Hellenkemper 1980b H. Hellenkemper, Gallo-römische Tempel an der Clemensstraße.. In: Römisch-Germanisches Zentralmuseum (Hrsg.), Köln III. Führer zu vor- und frühgeschichtlichen Denkmäler 39 (Mainz 1980) 7f.
Kühnemann u.a. 1965-1966 E. Kühnemann / W. Binsfeld, Die Grabungen im Kapitolbezirk. Kölner Jahrb. 8, 1966-1966, 46ff.
Rahtgens 1913 H. Rahtgens, Die Kirche S. Maria im Kapitol zu Köln (Düsseldorf 1913) 1ff.
Wolf 1981 G. Wolf, Das römisch-germanische Köln. Führer zu Museum und Stadt (Köln 1981) 141; 181f.; 245ff.
Köln-Widdersdorf (Stadt Köln; Nordrhein-Westfalen) / D; Villa rustica mit Iupitersäulen:
Liesen 2003 B. Liesen, Die Grabungen in der römischen Villa von Widdersdorf. Kleinfunde und Keramik. Kölner Jahrb. 36, 2003, 427ff.
Noelke 2002 P. Noelke, Iupitersäulen aus der römischen Villa in Köln-Widdersdorf, Kölner Jahrb. 35, 2002, 731ff.
Spiegel 2002 E. M. Spiegel, Ausgrabungen in einem römischen Siedlungsplatz mit zwei spätantiken burgi in Köln-Widdersdorf. Kölner Jahrb. 35, 2002, 699ff.
Spiegel 2005 E. M. Spiegel, Unruhige Zeiten auf dem Land. Ein römischer Gutshof wird nach 350 Jahren aufgegeben. In: Horn u.a. 2005, 462ff.
Heimberg 2002-2003 U. Heimberg, Römische Villen an Rhein und Maas. Bonner Jahrb. 202-203, 2002-2003, 144.
Krefeld-Elfrath (Stadt Krefeld; NRW) / D; Podiumtempel:
Reichmann 1988 C. Reichmann, Ein neues Heiligtum in Krefeld-Elfrath. Archäologie im Rheinland 1988, 72ff.
Nettersheim (Kr. Euskichen; Nordrhein-Westfalen) / D; Tempelbezirk "Görresburg":
Follmann-Schulz 1986 A.-B. Follmann-Schulz, Die römischen Tempelanlagen in der Provinz Germania inferior. In: Haase 1986, 750ff.
Horn 1974 H. G. Horn, Das Matronenheiligtum bei Nettersheim. In: Römisch-Germanisches Zentralmuseum (Hrsg.), Nordöstliches Eifelvorland. Führer zu vor- und frühgeschichtlichen Denkmäler 26 (Mainz 1974) 88ff.
Horn 1987 H.-G. Horn (Hrsg.), Die Römer in Nordrhein-Westfalen (Stuttgart 1987) 571ff.
Kleemann 1963 O. Kleemann, Zur ältesten Geschichte des Dorfes Nettersheim in der Eifel. Bonner Jahrb. 163, 1963, 212ff.
Lehner 1910 H. Lehner, Das Heiligtum der Matronae Aufaniae bei Nettersheim. Bonner Jahrb. 119, 1910, 301ff.
Niederzier (Kr. Düren; Nordrhein-Westfalen) / D; Kultpfosten(?) in Siedlung Hambach 382:
Gechter-Jones 1996 J. Gechter-Jones, Hausformen und Siedlungsbild der spätlatènezeitlichen Siedlung Niederzier-Hambach 382, Kr. Düren, Deutschland. Arch. Austriaca 80, 1996, 238-241.
Göbel u.a.1991 J. Göbel / A. Hartmann / H.-E. Joachim / V. Zedelius, Der spätkeltische Goldschatz von Niederzier. Bonner Jahrb. 191, 1991, 27ff.
Göbel 1992 J. Göbel, Ein Modell der spätlatènezeitlichen befestigten Siedlung Niederzier. Archäologie im Rheinland 1992, 192ff..
Göbel 1992a J. Göbel, Ein Blick in die Eisenzeit: das Modell der spätlatènezeitlichen befestigten Siedlung Niederzier. In: Spurensicherung. Archäologische Denkmalpflege in der Euregio Maas-Rhein. Führer des Rheinischen Landesmuseums Bonn und des Rheinischen Amtes für Bodendenkmalpflege Nr. 136 (Mainz 1992) 438ff.
Niederzier (Kr. Düren; Nordrhein-Westfalen) / D; Tempel und Iupitersäule der Villa rustica Hambach 488:
Gaitzsch 2005 W. Gaitzsch, Tempel und Jupitersäulen in villae rusticae. Archäologie im Rheinland 2005, 81ff.
Weilerswist-Klein Vernich (Kr. Euskirchen; NRW) / D; Villa rustica mit Umgangstempel:
Wagner 2003 P. Wagner, Bergung und Untersuchung der römischen Bestattungen von Weilerswist-Klein Vernich. Archäologie im Rheinland 2003, 110ff.
Xanten (Kr. Wesel; Nordrhein-Westfalen) / D; Capitol, Hafentempel und Heiligtum in Insula 20:
Follmann-Schulz 1986 A.-B. Follmann-Schulz, Die römischen Tempelanlagen in der Provinz Germania inferior. In: Haase 1986, 766ff.
Freigang 1995 Y. Freigang, Das Heiligtum der Insula 20 in der Colonia Ulpia Traiana. In: Grabung-Forschung-Präsentation. Xantener Berichte 6 (Köln-Bonn 1995) 139ff.
Heimberg u.a. 1998 U. Heimberg / A. Rieche (Neubearbeitung: U. Grote), Colonia Ulpia Traiana. Die römische Stadt; Planung – Architektur – Ausgrabung. Führer und Schriften des Archäologischen Parks Xanten 18 (Köln 1998) 68ff.
Hinz 1971 H. Hinz, 4. Bericht über die Ausgrabungen in der Colonia Ulpia Traiana bei Xanten. Beiträge zur Archäologie des römischen Rheinlandes II. Rheinische Ausgrabungen 11 (Düsseldorf 1971) 96ff.
Kühlborn 1978 J.-S. Kühlborn, Die Grabungen im Archäologischen Park Xanten im Jahre 1977. In: Colonia Ulpia Traiana. 3. Arbeitsbericht zu den Grabungen und Rekonstruktionen (Köln 1978) (42)46ff.
Peters 1989 R. Peters, Zur Cella-Wandgliederung des Hafentempels der Colonia Ulpia Traiana. In: G. Precht / H.-J. Schalles (Hrsg.), Spurenlese. Beiträge zur Geschichte des Xantener Raumes (Köln-Bonn 1989) 159ff.
Precht 1978 G. Precht, Der Archäologische Park Xanten, Kreis Wesel. In: Colonia Ulpia Traiana. 3. Arbeitsbericht zu den Grabungen und Rekonstruktionen (Köln 1978) (6)8ff.
Precht 1980 G. Precht, Der Archäologische Park Xanten, Kreis Wesel. In: Colonia Ulpia Traiana. 4. Arbeitsbericht zu den Grabungen und Rekonstruktionen (Köln 1980) 11ff.
Precht 1981 G. Precht, Der Archäologische Park Xanten. In: Colonia Ulpia Traiana. 5. Arbeitsbericht zu den Grabungen und Rekonstruktionen (Köln 1981) 7ff.
Precht 1984 G. Precht, Zur Rekonstruktion und Sicherung des "Hafentempels" in der Colonia Ulpia Traiana (CUT). In: Colonia Ulpia Traiana. 6. Arbeitsbericht zu den Grabungen und Rekonstruktionen (Köln 1984) 22ff.
Precht 1989 G. Precht, Das Capitol der Colonia Ulpia Traiana. In: G. Precht / H.-J. Schalles (Hrsg.), Spurenlese. Beiträge zur Geschichte des Xantener Raumes (Köln-Bonn 1989) 125ff.
Schalles 1995 H.-J. Schalles, Die "alte Burg" bei Philipp Houben und die Randbebauung der Capitolsinsula der CUT. In: Grabung-Forschung-Präsentation. Xantener Berichte 6 (Köln-Bonn 1995) 371ff.
Schalles 1995a H.-J. Schalles, Überlegungen zur Planung der Colonia Ulpia Traiana und ihrer öffentlichen Bauten im Spiegel städtischer Architektur des 2. Jahrhunderts n.Chr. In: Grabung-Forschung-Präsentation. Xantener Berichte 6 (Köln-Bonn 1995) 379ff.
Stephan 1981 H. Stephan, Grabungen im Bereich der südlichen Umgrenzungsmauer des Hafentempelbezirks. In: Colonia Ulpia Traiana. 5. Arbeitsbericht zu den Grabungen und Rekonstruktionen (Köln 1981) 43ff.
Stoll 1936 H. Stoff, Die Ergebnisse der Ausgrabungen bei Xanten im Winter 1934/35. Germania 20, 1936, 187f.
Wegner 1978 H. H. Wegner, Das Matronenheiligtum an der Siegfriedstraße. In: Colonia Ulpia Traiana. 1./2. Arbeitsbericht zu den Grabungen und Rekonstruktionen (Köln 1978) 40ff.
Zelle 1995 M. Zelle, Das Matronenheiligtum auf der Insula 20. In: Tatort CUT. Die Spur führt nach Xanten. Ausstellungskatalog Xanten (Köln 1995) 106ff.