Harbour informations about: Lighthouse

Auch von den auf dem Plan von G.Lugli am "Leuchtturm" anschließenden Räumen ist ebenso nur noch die seeseitige Mauer erhalten.Während das Mauerwerk in Peperin-Blöcke die Baustrukturen aus republikanischer Zeit charakterisiert, so stammt der "Leuchturm" wie vermutlich auch die sich an diesem anschließenden Annexbauten aus domitianischer Zeit.




Albo/Nemi


At the tip of the pier there is a very wide rampart cause by a collapsed structure. At the eastern tip of the pier there is a rectangular tower (12 x 30 m), identical to the structure on the N-S mole, on the southern shore. Possibly also a lighthouse




Atlit


Josephus described the general harbor’s outline in both his works Jewish Wars (I. 408-418) and Jewish Antiquities (XV. 335-341). He also mentions about towers to be built on the main quay and the tallest and most fabulous was called Drusion:

"At intervals along it (the quay), were great towers (pyrgoi), the tallest and most magnificent of which was named Drusion, after the stepson of Caesar (JW I. 411)"

"The rest comprised a stone wall (teichos) set at intervals with towers (pyrgoi), the tallest quite a beautiful thing, was called Drusion, taking its name from Drusus, the stepson of Caesar who died young (AntJ XV. 335)."

In none of his writings, Josephus does not mention of a lighthouse at Caesarea. He is also less precise about Drusion, the only monument in the port facilities, other than the Great Temple that was dedicated to the goddess Roma and the deified Emperor Augustus.

If we try to reconstruct the lighthouse at Caesarea, than we must relay on other known Hellenistic and Roman similar structures. The famous neighbor Pharos at Alexandria may have been used as a model: three-tired structure with a square base, octagonal superstructure and a cylindrical turret. The reconstructed lighthouse at Caesarea would have been also based on other Herodian towers and known Roman lighthouses.




Caesarea


An der gerade verlaufenden Küste wurde das Hafenbecken durch zwei zangenartig angelegte Molen mit vorgelagerter "Hafeninsel" vor der Hafeneinfahrt angelegt. Der im Kern noch römische Hafenturm an der Einfahrt stand noch bis 1943-44. Heute, wenn auch durch Bombeneinwirkung während des zweiten Weltkrieges stark in Mitleidenschaft gezogen, nur noch im Kern römisch erkennbar .




Civitavecchia


Auf der Spitze der Aufschüttung wird von den Bearbeitern ein Leuchturm rekonstruiert, deren rechteckiger Unterbau Pier 5 ist. Archäologisch zwar nicht nachgewiesen, wird ein Tonmodell aus Vulci als Rekonstruktionshilfe herangezogen. Ebenso wird die Möglichkeit, daß ein Amphorenstempel der Sestier dieses Bauwerk abbilden könnte in Erwägung gezogen. Es handelt sich dabei um einen einfachen schmalen, eingeschossigen Turm auf dessen Plattform das Feuer entfacht werden konnte.




Cosa


On top of each of the east and west hills overlooking the valley was a Roman lighthouse (pharos), the eastern one mostly having survived inside the medieval Dover Castle where its upper works were rebuilt in medieval times. Both lighthouses, when alight at night, may have been visible from the French coast and certainly could guide ships crossing the English Channel at night.

The eastern lighthouse is an octagonal tower 11m wide whose surviving Roman structure is 13.1m high. It is built of stone with courses of Roman bonding tiles. It rises in four stages, each originally with a timber floor with a window facing the sea. Its original height is unknown.

The western lighthouse was destroyed long ago, and its site has not been archaeologically investigated in recent times.

These lighthouses matched a tall Roman lighthouse that once stood in Boulogne where the Classis Britannica seem to have had their headquarters.




Dover


At the base of the north mole there is a rectangular building. Its base is about 6.5m x 7.5m and its surviving height about 3.5m. It is located directly upon the modern coast and has been built on top of earlier wall foundations. Its construction seems late Roman and according to the excavators it must be part of the structure of the ancient lighthouse.




Kenchreai


In the southern section of the western basin survive the remains of a four-sided island measuring 8 X 8m. This feature has been interpreted as the base for a bronze statue of Poseidon as mentioned by Pausanius (Pausanius, II, 2, 3). The feature may be dated to the 3rd century BC. The interpretation of the island as a plinth for the statue of Poseidon, holding a flame to act as a lighthouse, is only feasible since the island is situated in a straight line with the entrance to the harbour. The island is constructed from large ashlars (2 X 0.8 X 0.8m).

At the end of the western external jetty a construction, such as a fortified tower or lighthouse, is also evident.




Lechaeon


Der dritte Abschnitt der Nordseite besteht aus der unteren und einer weiteren oberen Ebene. Endpunkt bildet der Leuchturm. Dieser steht auf einem rechteckigen Unterbau (21.20 x 21.20) von dem man zur oberen Kaiebene durch zwei eingewölbte Treppenaufgänge zu 20 Stufen gelangte. Der eigentliche Turm besteht aus drei übereinander angeordneten, sich nach oben verjüngenden Kuben. Die beiden ersten Absätze haben ihren architektonischen Schmuck teilweise erhalten, vom dritten sind wenige Reste aufzufinden. Der Zementkern hat noch eine Höhe von bis 9 m. Die ursprüngliche Höhe mag ca. 30 m gewesen sein. über das Aussehen der Laterne können keine Aussagen gemacht werden (s. Sturzlage).




Leptis-Magna


Ein weiterer Leuchtturm stand auf der Ostseite ca. 23 m vor dem Tempel, leicht östlich aus der Flucht der anderen Bauten auf der oberen  Ebene verschoben.  Der in pseudo-isodomischen Mauerwerk errichtete Turm weist einen fast quadratischen Grundriß von 9.90 m auf. Die erhaltene Höhe beträgt 6.50 m. Die Türöffnung geht nach Süden (vgl. römische Leuchturmbauten in La Coruna und in Dover).




Leptis-Magna


Tra l’ingresso maggiore e la probabile entrata meridionale, la fotografia aerea delinea un’area ovoidale allungata molto più ampia della linea dei moli, che potrebbe essere il luogo del faro.

Manca però il riscontro archeologico.


Ostia-Claudio



Un faro doveva guidare le imbarcazioni verso il porto fluviale. Tor Boacciana risale all’epoca medievale, ma conserva un nucleo romano, della fine del II o degli inizi del III secolo d. C. Non ci sono tracce di resti romani all’intorno; ma sia la forma che la posizione suggeriscono che doveva trattarsi, in epoca romana, di un faro o di una torre d’avvistamento (Meiggs 1973: 279).


Ostia-Fluviale


Alla sua testata, ove oggi si trova una casa colonica, doveva trovarsi un piccolo faro.


Ostia-Traiano



La testata del molo si allargava in una base il cui lato lungo misura 21,8 metri. Qui doveva trovarsi un faro, ancora in parte visibile agli inizi del secolo.


Ostia-Traiano


The existence of lighthouses (columns with fire at their highest point) for the signification of the entrance is confirmed by the remnants that have been restored in two positions along the coast (Steinhauer, G.A., 2000,p.79). (Fig.6, 7). The first one on the northwest, inside the area of today’s fertilizer factory and the other to the south, in the area of the Maritime Administration of the Aegean, beside the precinct that has been identified as the tomb of Themistocles.


Piraeus


Waterways played an important role in the trade contacts of the Odra delta, especially the three passes of the Gulf of Szczecin: The Piana, Dziwna, andĠZwina. The numerous coins and silver ornaments hoards found on their banks that come from various distant centres prove the great range of the contacts. The founding of trade settlements (e.g. Menzlin), and crafts, trade city centres (Szczecin, Wolin) developed early in this area. Written documents confirm the existence of regular sail links, especially with Wolin but also with Kamień, Szczecin, Uznam in the 11th century. These waterways criss-crossed the Gulf of Szczecin, which because of shallowness, shifting winds, low banks, and low waves did not favour sailing. Facilities promoting sailing must have existed as Adam of Bremen noted 1074 in his description of Wolin: Ibi est Olla Vulcani, quod incole Graecam ignem vocant. R. Kiersnowski (1951) attempted to locate the Volcano Pot on Chrząszczewska Island, inspiring further research and study. In light of these studies and analysis of the maritime conditions in the Gulf of Szczecin, we are inclined to place the oldest lighthouse on the southern peninsula of Hangman's Hill (Wzgórze Wisielców). Archaeological finds such as large fire site and „pirates" grave with a head on a pole also indirectly support this view. The beacon from the point would have covered the entire so-called Large Gulf. Adam of Bremen, mentions Greeks twice {Graecis et Barbaris) in addition to a "Greek light". The universal view in the literature is, they were old Russ named after their religion, but this does not precluded that they were actually Greeks. Wolin's contacts with Byzantium and with Kiev Russ in the 9th and 10th centuries have been confirmed by archaeological finds of brocades. Knowledge of the construction of a lighthouse from Byzantium where they were known in the 10th century, most probably reached Wolin through Kiev, which had very lively contacts with Byzantium. The signal tower discovered at the fortifications in Witiczew on the Dniepr forty kilometres from Kiev can serve as an example of the intermediary role. It is constructed like a lighthouse with firelight on a tower in a large vessel. We conclude from the above that the “Volcano Pot" that the inhabitants call a “Greek light" is a lighthouse of Greek-Russ origin. This applies especially to the phrase “Greek light" which is not connected to the name of the weapon used effectively from the 7th century A.D. on in the Byzantine fleet. The phrase.Volcano Pot" probably originated with Adam of Bremen who could have known volcanoes from Italy and Sicily(Filipowiak 1985).


Wolin


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