Harbour informations about:  

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Topography

Abdera is one of the most important cities of northern Thrace. The geomorphology of the area where the city is situated, a promontory with many bays, have allowed the use of the natural characteristics of the coast for the formation with minor interventions of harbours and anchorages. Today the ancient coastline has receded and is to be found on dry land, due to floods and alluvia from the river Nestos. The area of the ancient port is covered by an uncultivated marsh.




Abdera


The foundation of the city goes back in myth. It is alluded that it was built to honor Abderos, who was devoured by the horses of Geriones. Ionians settled there round the 7th c BC. The city gained great renown and became a very important commercial and agricultural center. Its democratic regime and its important mint gave her impetus in the creation of a fleet to serve its commercial traffic. During the Persian Wars the city possesses a harbour capable of sheltering the fleet of the Thasians following the command of Dareios as is reported by Herodotus. Abdera among other things is the home country of Democretos.




Abdera


Excavation work is being carried out in the area by the Archaeologike Etaireia. Moreover the Department of Underwater Antiquities carried out two consecutive underwater campaigns (1993-1994).




Abdera


The installations of the archaic port and the ship shed are dated based on the ceramic evidence round the 6th or the early 5th c BC. Round the end of the 5th – beginning of the 4th c BC the harbour is silted probably because of some flood of the river Nestos. The traffic was then transferred to the port that lies in the area of the modern port of Abdera, a fact that is also observed in the area of the city as a transfer of activity from the north to the south. The installations of that port are dated round the 4th c BC and are still in use up to the Byzantine period. Last the mole in Agios Giannis area is dated in the classical period based on similarities in construction with the city wall.

The case of Abdera is rather characteristic for the Greek world. It a usual phenomenon for cities built on promontories to make full use of the natural morphology of the coast and thus with minor interventions have safe anchorages that can protect their ships against several winds.




Abdera


Θεοδουλου, Θ. /Theodoulou, Th.




Abdera


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Topography

The ancient town of Aigeira is situated on the hill of Palaeokastro along the north coast of Peloponnesos. The harbour of the Roman town is situated in the cove of Mavra Litharia, at the foot of Palaeokastro and protected the ships against eastern and northeastern winds. The area is one of the few known that possesses the natural characteristics for the formation of a harbour (for the most part the coast is sandy and linear with few rocky areas that advance into the sea and belongs to a tectonically active area).

The harbour of ancient Aigeira is situated at the foot of the steep hill of Palaeokastro; its remains stretch for an area of approximately 100m along the coast and are better preserved in the eastern section. The installations, segments of breakwater and mole, are located today on land. The coastline of the time of the harbour’s construction is now to be found at a height of round 4m above the present sea level




Aigeira


Homer refers to the town with the name Hypersie. It is mentioned along with other Peloponnesian cities as forming part of Agamemnon’s kingdom, under whom the town took part in the Trojan war. Later on the name of the town changed to Aigeira (Pausanias VII, 26: 2-4). Aigeira flourished during the Hellenistic period and is one of the cities that played an important role both in the old and new Achaean League (Papachatzis 1980, 160). Important architectural remains that are preserved on the hill attest to its prosperity in Roman times as well. Some time during the late 3rd century the town was destroyed most probably by an earthquake and was thus abandoned.

The ruins of the ancient town were identified by several travelers of the 19th century (Curtius, 1851). In the site of ancient Aigeira are preserved segments of the fortification wall, a Hellenistic theatre, which was restored in Roman times, remains of a temple dedicated probably to Zeus and Artemis, as well as numerous graves that date to the Hellenistic, Roman and Mycenaean periods.




Aigeira


Excavations in the town of ancient Aigeira have been carried out by the Austrian Archaeological Institute (1916, 1925 and 1971-1989). Leake was the first to identify the remains of the ancient harbour (1836: 396-387), but apart from isolated references it has never as yet formed object of systematic archaeological research. However due to the great interest that the area presents from a geological point of view, because of the great uplift of the coastline it has been studied by geologists and other scientists.




Aigeira


The harbour of ancient Aigeira forms a typical example of a roman harbour as regards its construction technique and the extensive use of concrete. The port was dated with greater precision based on the results of the land excavations in the area of the ancient town. The construction of this rather expensive public work is dated round the period of the town’s floruit namely in the period of the reign of emperor Maximus Thrax (236-238 AD). Moreover on the basis of the research made in the area of the ancient theatre it was deduced that this was abandoned round 250 AD, a time when the restoration works are interrupted, never to be resumed after that. The desertion of the city along with the abandonment of the harbour was attributed based on geological studies to a big and destructive earthquake round the end of the 3rd century AD, from which the city most probably never recovered.

Any conclusion reached as yet for the topography and the construction of the ancient harbour is based on observations made on its visible remains. The fact that no excavation work has been carried out hinders significantly our understanding and any attempt to reconstruct the ancient site and the overall plan of the harbour. However, it still remains an important archaeological site, as it is one of the few roman harbours preserved in Greece and perhaps the only that is located in its entirety on dry land. Moreover it offers a very good case study for the impact that dramatic geological events can have on the topography and the history of an area.




Aigeira


Θεοδουλου, Θ. / Theodoulou. Th.




Aigeira





Akko


Country Israel

Locality Akko

Findspot 15 km north of Haifa

Coordinates (UTM; Longitude 35º04’ Latitude 32º55’




Akko


Roads (on land); the northern coastal highway.




Akko


The structures of Akko port above sea level (Tower of the Flies, the southern breakwater) have been mentioned in documents, were depicted in painting and on maps since the Middle Ages. In mid-19th century Mansel made a bathymetric survey of the harbor’s bottom, for the British Royal Navy. He marked the submerged rampart between the Tower of the Flies and the northern shore.

In the summer of 1964, the Israel Underwater Exploration Society (IUES), under the direction of Dr. E. Linder, made the first archaeological underwater survey of the port. In 1965, during the construction of the new breakwater, trial soundings were carried out by the divers in preparation of a detailed mapping of the submerged structure remains. Explorations of the harbor continued in 1966 with special attention on examining the foundations of the Tower of the Flies. From 1976 to 1978, several seasons of underwater excavations were conducted by the Center for Maritime Studies, University of Haifa and IUES. The foundations of the structure beneath the Tower of the Flies were partially exposed. Trial trenches were dug in the rampart beneath the Tower and the north shore. A trench was dug across the tip of the southern breakwater. During this period also remains of a shipwreck from the time of Napoleon’s siege on Akko were revealed at the entrance of the harbor.




Akko


Persian and Phoenician Periods

The Sidonians who launched out into the Mediterranean trades were called by the Greeks as Phoenicians. Akko was their most southern city. The physical feature of the Bay of Akko with its southwest rocky promontory was the kind of site that the Phoenicians always chose as a harbor for their coastal trade. With the Persian conquest in the middle of the 6th century BCE, Akko appears under its Phoenician name Aké (Ace), as the base of the Persian operations against Egypt. The Persian period was a critical one in the history of the city. The town moved closer to the bay with its transformation into an administrative and commercial center, mainly at the time of Cambyses (6th century BCE). Akko became an important naval center both to Egypt and Persia. Greek objects appeared in the new city of Akko through the sea trade. By the end of the Persian period, in the middle of the 4th century BCE, there was a colony of Greek merchants at Akko.

The buildings within the bay were constructed by the Phoenician method (header built) combined with altering sections of ashlar and fieldstones. The archaeological investigations revealed that in Phoenician and the Greek cultures existed side by side in Akko. In the Hellenistic period the center of the Akko (later Ptolemais) completely moved to the bay, although the inland Tel (Mound), retained buildings with administrative functions.

 

Hellenistic Period

Phoenicia fell to Alexander the Great in 333 BCE, when the Persians were defeated. During this period coins were minted at Akko for the first time. Alexander set up a mint, which issued gold and silver staters and silver tetradrachmas of Greek type. This mint also issued silver coins of Tyrian type, probably for circulation in Phoenicia itself. From 261 BCE onwards there is a dated series of coins bearing the new name of Ptolemais along with the Phoenician name, which was indicated either by its first two Phoenician letters or written in Greek – AK.

Roman and Byzantine Periods

During the Roman period, Ptolemais (Akko) was specially favored by Julius Caesar, who visited the town in 48 BCE. Ptolemais became a regular landing-place and base of operations for the Roman forces and their allies. When king Herod built his unique artificial harbor at Caesarea Maritima (21-9 BCE), Akko suffered from this rivalry. Between 52 and 54 CE, the emperor Claudius settled a colony of veterans at Ptolemais and henceforward the city received the title Colonia Claudia Felix Ptolemais. It was the first city in Palestine to receive this distinction, probably because its port was used for military purposes. In the First Jewish Revolt (66-70 CE), Ptolemais was hostile to the Jew. In the later years of the war, Akko became Vespasian’s headquarter in his operations against Galilee.

During the Christian period Saint Paul visited Ptolemais in his third missionary journey. In the Byzantine period, Akko was the seat of bishop and archdeacon of Tyre.

Arabic Period

Although Ptolemais had been the official name for very long periods, the Semitic name Accho (Akko) was still in general use among the population. After the Arab conquest in 636 CE, the old name had a slight modified form Akka, which became the official name. The caliphs ruled it for the next four centuries (1036 CE). Mu’awiya, the founder of the Umayyad dynasty in Damascus and the first of the Arab rulers who developed a sea power, made Akka one of his bases to conquest overseas. He strengthened both cities of Akko and Tyre by settling them with the Persian population he had brought from Syria. At Akko he established a shipbuilding industry, which made it a naval base only second to Alexandria. The naval importance of Akko returned during the 9th century, as the threat of the Byzantine re-conquest was renewed.

The harbor was much improved and strengthened by the Turk Ahmad ibn Tulun (a semi-independent governor of Egypt; 868-884), when he annexed Palestine and Syria to his province.

In 1073, the ruler of Egypt and Fatimid domain could not prevent the Turkish conquest. In 1089, he succeeded in recovering Akko and other leading ports south of Tripoli (Syria).

Crusader Period

Marching down from Syria the army of the First Crusade arrived on the plains of Akko in 1099. They did not capture the city but only passed through on the way to capture Jerusalem. In 1104, the Crusader king Balwin I besieged Akko only after he had occupied the ports of Jaffa, Arsuf (Apollonia) and Caesarea. At once Akko became he chief port of the Latin Kingdom of Baldwn I, who had settled in Palestine and southern Lebanon.




Akko


In 1187, Akko fell to the sultan Saladin, but Richard the Lionheart retook it in 1191. From 1191 to 1291 Akko was the capital of the diminished Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem and was under the king’s direct rule. In April 1291, the Mameluk ruler Malik el-Ashraf laid siege to Akko. He could not conquer the city from the sea, but had complete control on the main land. The capture of Akko by the Mameluks was followed by the destruction of the town and its fortification. One of their leader Muhqmmad an-Nasir ibn Qalawun (later sultan of Egypt) had taken a Gothic doorway of one of the churches in Akko and transported to Egypt to adorn his tomb in Cairo, where it may still be seen. This piece is a solitary remain of the architecture of the numerous churches during the Crusader Akko.




Akko


Persian and Hellenistic Periods

Remains of the earlier maritime constructions were found on the sea floor, in the area between the southwest shore and the southern breakwater. At a depth of 0.8 m, a double course of ashlar header (0.6 x 0.5 x 1.2 m) was exposed.




Akko


The pottery recovered included a fragment of a Phoenician bowl with a fragmentary inscription, dating to the second half of the 6th or the beginning of the 5th century BCE.




Akko


A very large quantity of pottery sherds from the 1st century CE retrieved during the deepening of the harbor basin in 1983, attests to intensive marine activities in the port during this period.




Akko


Zaraza Friedman




Akko





Albo/Nemi



Republik Italien, Rgion Latium, Provinz Rom
Koordinaten: ca. 41° 35’ N – 12° 25’ E (Lago di Nemi)
Koordinaten: ca. 41° 40’ N – 12° 30’ E (Lago Albano)

Es handelt sich hier um zwei Vulkankraterseen, ca. 18 und 26 km süd-westlich von Rom, entsprechend 293 (Albano) und 316 (Nemi) m ü.NN.




Albo/Nemi


Es liegen zahlreiche Fundnotizen aus älterer wie auch aus neuerer Zeit vor, ebenso einige Geländeaufnahmen, letztere hauptsächlich aus dem Beginn des 20.Jhs. Prospektionen mit modernen technischen Mitteln ergaben in und an beiden Seen diverse neolitische, bronzezeitliche sowie auch eisenzeitliche Fundplätze. Die Untersuchungen zu den bronzezeitlichen Fundorten im Lago Albano dauern teilweise noch an.

Der Lago di Nemi ist hauptsächlich wegen der zwischen 1929-31 geborgenen und durch Kriegseinwirkungen im II.Weltkrieg verbrannten Prunkschiffen aus der Zeit des Kaisers Caligula (37-41 v.Chr.) bekannt.




Albo/Nemi


Beide Seen waren gut über die Via Appia zu erreichen und waren Teil der römischen Villegiatur südlich der antiken Großstadt Rom. Seit der spätrepublkanischer Zeit entstanden an den Hängen rund um die Seen zahlreiche Villengebäude mit rekreativem Charakter. In domitianischer Zeit (81-96 v.Chr.) gehörte das Gebiet um dem Lago Albano zur Villa des Kaisers Domitian (Reste unter der heutigen Sommerresidenz des Papstes in Castel Gandolfo). Der Wasserspiegel des Lago Albano wurde künstlich konstant gehalten Dank eines 398-397 v.Chr. angelegten künstlichen "Überlaufs" ("Emissario" Livius V 15-19). Dieser besteht aus einem 1,8 km langen Tunneldurchbruchs (H 2.00 x B 1.00 m) zwischen Albano und Castel Gandolfo.




Albo/Nemi


Marcus Heinrich Hermanns


Albo/Nemi


The port of the kingdom of Amathous

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Amathous


The French Archeological School of Athens investigated the port of the town from 1984 to 1986 and has conducted archeological research in the district of Amathous from 1975.




Amathous


The research of the port indicated that the it was constructed at the end of the fourth century BC and abandoned almost immediately during the first years of the third century BC, probably before construction was completed. This is indicated by the quantity of native and imported pottery dating to the latter part of the 4th century BC found at the base of the lower level of the ashlars of the breakwaters.




Amathous


The construction of the harbour may have been necessitated by the need of a naval base by Demetrius, and also Ptolemy, during their dispute for Cyprus. The most probable senario is the construction of the harbour by Demetrius who wished to utilize the port as the base for his naval fleet, whilst at the same time being able to consolidate and control Cyprus.

The fact that the port is mentioned as deserted could be explained in two ways. Firstly, Pseudo-Skyllax may have obtained the information from an earlier source, suggesting that the port was already deserted at the end of the Archaic or the early part of the Classical period. Alternatively he may have been refering to the existing state of the harbour in the mid 4rd Century BC, by which time it was already deserted or of limited use, something which would explain the neccessity at the end of the century for the construction of a monumental Hellenistic harbour, also bearing in mind the naval requirements of Demetrios and Ptolemy.




Amathous


Θεοδούλου Θ. / Theodoulou, Th.




Amathous


Topographie

Königreich Spanien, Region Katalonien, Provinz Girona
heutiger Ort: L' Escala, ca. 40 km nördlich von Girona
Koordinaten: ca. 42° 15' N - 03° 10' E




Ampurias


Die Stadt Ampurias (Emporion) findet schon in der Küstenbeschreibung (Periplus) des Pseudo-Skylax ebenso wie im Periplus des Skymnos (2.Jh.v.Chr.) Erwähnung. Seit der Renaissance war der Ort bekannt, und gab dem ganzen Gebiet den Namen: Ampurdan. Das bedeutende Hafendenkmal hat bisher immer im Schatten der archäologischen Untersuchungen innerhalb des Stadtsareals gestanden und kaum Beachtung gefunden. Zuletzt wurden verstärkt geoarchäologische Untersuchungen zur Rekonstruktion der antiken Küstenlinie durchgeführt. Von der Lage und des Umfeldes von Emporion gibt Strabon (III 4,8 f.) eine Beschreibung. Zwischenzeitlich hat sich die Küstensituation gänzlich geändert. So beschreibt Strabon den Hafen als eine direkt bei Emporion (an der Palaiopolis) gelegenen Flußmündung. Diese kann zwar nicht genau  identifiziert werden, ist aber sicherlich die des Flusses Fluvia, der heute ca. 500 m nördlich in den Golf von Rosas mündet.



Ampurias


Griechische Kolonie von Phokäern aus Massilia (heute Marseille)im Jahre 575 v.Chr. gegründet. Die ursprüngliche Siedlung (Palaiapolis -Strabon III 4.8-) lag auf einer vorgelagerten Insel (Isla de San Martin) welche später nach dem Ausbau der Neustadt mit dem Festland (Neapolis)verbunden wurde. Die nahegelegene Flußmündung des Fluvia galt als Flußhafen. Im Jahre 49 v. Chr. gründet Cäsar neben der Neapolis eine römische Kolonie. Stadt und Kolonie verlieren in den folgenden Jahrhunderten u.a. durch die stetige Verlandung des Hafens an Bedeutung. Durch die Normanneninvasion 852 n.Chr. zerstört, wurde die Stadt gänzlich verlassen.



Ampurias


Es gibt keine genauen Belege für einen Hafen von Emporion und die bisher in der Fachliteratur geäußerten Vorschläge für seine Lokalisierung sind eher Arbeitshypothesen als genaue Erkenntnisse. Überwiegend wird der verlandete Bereich zwischen der Palaiapolis und der Neapolis als Hafenbucht betrachtet, jedoch blieben die in dieser Gegend durchgeführten geologischen Sondagen leider ergebnislos. Auch die Zuweisung der Mole, deren spärliche Indizien eine Datierung für das Ende des 2.Jhs. v.Chr nahelegen,  zu einer regelrechten Hafenanlage stützt sich auf Vermutungen; stand diese "Hafenmauer" doch sicherlich nicht so isoliert da wie heute. Untersuchungen im Gelände haben ergeben, daß das Stadtgebietes sich weiter nach Osten erstreckt haben muß als bisher angenommen wird.

In der Forschung geht man von der Hypothese aus, es habe zu verschiedenen Zeiten der Stadtentwicklung verschiedene Hafenanlagen gegeben. So ist zumindest ab dem 2.Jh.n.Chr.eine mögliche Stelle ca. 10 km südlich von Emporion bei der Playa de Riells, La Clota petita und La clota grosa archäologisch nachgewiesen. Hier fanden sich neben nautischen Funden wie Anker und Schiffsfunden auch andere archäologische Reste an Land, welche auf eine intensive Nutzung dieser günstigen (Hafen-, Anker)-Bucht  hinweisen.



Ampurias


Marcus Heinrich Hermanns


Ampurias


Repulik Italien, Region Latium, Provinz Rom
heutiger Ort: Anzio
Koordinaten: ca. 41° 25’ N - 12°20’ E




Anzio


Von eher war die volskische Stadt Anzio dem Meer sehr verbunden. Obwohl Anzio zu den "prisciae coloniae latinae" gehörte (497 v.Chr. als römische Kolonie gegründet) wurde der  volskische Hafen ("Caenon" genannt) nach der vernichtenden Niederlage in der Schlacht am Fluße Astura in der Auflehnung gegen Rom im Jahre 338 v.Chr. besetzt und die Flotte, welche sich u.a. bis ins 3.Jh. v.Chr. als Seeräuber hervorgetan hatte, zerstört. Die Schiffsschnäbel wurden teilweise auf dem Forum Romanum in Rom als Trophäen zur Schau gestellt. Kurze Zeit darauf wurde die Stadt römisch neugegründet. Erst unter Kaiser Nero (54-68 n.Chr.) wurde der Hafen neu ausgebaut (Sueton, Nero IX 5). Unter Papst Innozenz (1691-1700) wurde östlich ein weiteres Hafenbecken angelegt ("porto Innocenziano"). Neben Civitavecchia war Anzio ein wichtiger Hafen des Kirchenstaates.



Anzio





Anzio


Marcus Heinrich Hermanns


Anzio


Republik Italien, Region Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Provinz Udine
heutiger Ort: nähe Udine
Koordinaten: ca. 45° 50' N - 13° 10' E




Aquileia


Es handelt sich um einen ca. 48 m breiten Flußhafen.(keyword: river port) deren beide Ufer in Stein befestigt waren. Schon in augusteischer Zeit schreibt Strabon ( V 1.8) von einem großen Handelsplatz mit Seeanschluß von besonderer Bedeutung insbesonders für die alpinen Länder.
Die Bauten des jetzigen sichtbaren Hafen weisen Bauphasen einer späteren, vermutlich aus der Zeit Kaiser Claudius (41-54), auf.  Später kamen die Verteidigungsmauern (298 n.Chr.) und Türme (361 n.Chr.) hinzu.




Aquileia


Grabungen G.Brusin 1926-1931. Laufende Untersuchungen der Ecole Francaise à Rome (s. Rechenschaftsberichte in der jährlichen Zeitschrift MEFRA).




Aquileia





Aquileia


Marcus Heinrich Hermanns


Aquileia


Topographie
Republik Italien, Region Latium, Provinz Rom
Koordinaten: ca. 41° 15' N - 12° 45' E




Astura


Südlich von Anzio an der Küste zwischen Anzio und Terracina. Heute militärische Sperrzone, daher schwer zugänglich.




Astura


Es handelt sich hier um den Privathafen einer (möglicherweise kaiserlichen) römischen Villa aus dem 1.-2.Jh.n.Chr. Sie lag in der Nähe des antiken Ortes Astura an der Mündung des gleichnamien Flusses (Livius VIII 13,5; XII). Der Hafen "Torre Astura" war durch seinen Ausbau gut geschützt vor Nord- und Westwinden.  Im und um das Hafenbecken wurden diverse Schiffsfunde gemacht. Besonders zu erwähnen die Reste einer mit Amphoren beladenen nais oneraria.




Astura


Noch in der Reanaissacezeit war der Hafen bekannt. So wird er als Schutzort noch bei B.Crescenzio in seinem Werk "Nautica Mediteranea" (1602) erwähnt. 




Astura


Marcus Heinrich Hermanns


Astura





Atlit


Country - Israel

Locality - Atlit

Coordinates – Latitude: 32º48’46’’

Longitude: 34º57’14’’




Atlit


Land excavations carried out by C. N. Johns, in the 1930’s revealed a series of rock-cut shaft tombs and cremation burials along the SE part of the kurkar (sandstone) ridge. The burial and the settlement on the north coast were dated to the periods between the 9th and the 5th centuries BCE. While studying the Crusader’s north walls, Johns found an older understructure beneath. It was at the ground level of the gate with a kurkar-paved passage and two flanking towers. The remains of the Phoenician harbor were first located in 1963, during underwater survey by a team from the Underwater Exploration Society of Israel (UESI). The mapping and trial excavations continued for two years (1963-1965), as part of the "Atlit Map Survey" carried out by the Archaeological Survey of Israel. In the following year (1966), surveys and trial excavations continued. A check was made on the relationship between the structures found along the shore and the gate discovered by Johns’ excavations, near the northern poterna, east of the crusader fosse. Additionally, the remains of a settlement from the 10th to the 6th BCE centuries were found east of the Crusader cemetery.

Within the northern harbor and the area around it were revealed several wrecks. In 1976, Dr. E. Linder and A. Raban (University of Haifa) carried out underwater excavations to study the marine structures, digging down to their foundations. In 1981, within the North Bay and close to the shore was found a very large bronze, one piece cast, battering ram (476 kg) known as the "Atlit Ram", dated to the Hellenistic period of the 4th - 2nd centuries BCE. Other finds were bronze objects from the Late Iron Age, Persian and Hellenistic periods, along with the ammunition from a Mameluk warship, including canons and copper helmets. In the early 1980’, during the underwater surveys carried out by E. Galili from the Institute for Maritime Studies, University of Haifa was revealed the unique site of a Neolithic (7000 BCE) submerged village (7th-12th m). Excavations were carried out between 1984 and 1991.




Atlit


Cultural context – MB II age settlement and burials

- Phoenican harbor and rock-cut shaft burials

- Crusader Citadel and Fortress

- Centuries – 16th century BCE

- 7th-5th centuries BCE

- end of 1291 Crusader rule was ended by the Mameluk Empire

There is not enough data to give a precise date for the ancient harbor at Atlit. The pottery vessels found during the underwater surveys and trial excavations was not earlier than the end of the 7th century BCE. The mole at Tabat el-Hammam, is dated to the 9th century BCE. The parallels between Akko, Tyre and Sidon are not earlier than 6th-5th century BCE. The Atlit harbor being more sophisticated than that at Tabat el-Hammam, and the pottery finds within the harbor basin, permit an estimated date for its construction to the 7th century BCE or even later. The Hellenistic and Roman pottery finds are quite limited, thus one may assume that during these periods the harbor was not at its high pick and use.




Atlit


The Templars established a fort or police station close to the rock-cut passage (1118), the ruins of which are still visible. In 1218, during the Fifth Crusade, the Castle known as Castrum Perigrinorum, was built by the Templars on the rocky promontory, on the ruins of the Phoenician settlement. It was named after the pilgrims (peregrini) who came and helped to build it along with a chapel, a palace, a stable and several dwellings. The site was chosen because it could have a better control on the coastal road and also the way to recovering Jerusalem, which had been taken 1187. The castle was completed while the main army of the Crusade was engaged into the Moslem siege at Damietta in Egypt (1218-1221). The main, east façade of the castle was doubled by the addition of a wall with three towers. A low wall along the outer edge of the fosse further strengthened it.

Through 1220, the Citadel was threatened by the Moslem conquerors. When in 1265, the Mameluk sultan Malik edh-Dhahir Baybars conquered the Atlit settlement he did not attack the Citadel. Only in 1291, when Akko fell under the Mameluk Sultan Al-Malek al-Ashraf, the Citadel at Atlit was deserted. For the fear that the of the Castle will be re-conquered by the Crusaders, the Mameluks destroyed the fortification walls on the eastern side of the promontory. During the Turkish government the stones from the masonry at the stones Atlit were shipped away to be used for building the sea walls at Akko, still surrounding the harbor . After the Mamekuk rule, Atlit fell in disrepair and the sever earthquake in 1837 caused its major damage afterwards. The ruins of Atlit and other sites as they appeared in the 19th century were illustrated in many pictures of the pilgrims and travelers to the Holy Land. One such print shows the ruined Atlit seen from the South Bay. In 1903, Edmund de-Rothschild, who owned the lands at the site, founded the Jewish village of Atlit, 1 km to the south of the Crusader settlement.




Atlit


The best parallels to the piers at Atlit are found at the southern pier at Akko, Israel, the "Egyptian" harbor at Tyre and the ancient pier at Tabat el-Hammam, on the Syrian coast. The building system is much the same, although the width of the pier at Akko was 12 m (at Tyre and Sidon it was 15 m). Another close parallel to the piers is found at Amathos, in the southern Cyprus. The gap between the two islands at Atlit resembles the 20 m wide gap at the western side in the southern "Egyptian" harbor at Tyre. This opening most probably served for washing out silt from the closed basin of the harbor.




Atlit


TH – two Phoenician letters incised on the vertical wall of the quarried kurkar ridge east of the Phoenician settlement; the letters are visible from the highway




Atlit


Zaraza Friedman


Atlit


 

 

Country: Israel

Locality: Caesarea

Coordinates (UTM; longitude/latitude): Long. 34° 53.5‘ E

Lat. 32° 30.5‘ N




Caesarea


Caesarea is located on a straight sandy coast, stretching from Atlit (23 km N) to Givat Olga (6 km S), and south of Haifa (40 km). To the north of Caesarea is the Crocodile River (Crocodilus; c.2 km) and to the south is the Alexander River (c.3 km). The main sources of information about Caesarea and its harbor construction come from the writings of Josephus. He gives a general geographical description of the site where king Herod chose to built the harbor, on a straight shoreline without any natural protection :




Caesarea


The earliest investigations of the ancient harbor of Sebastos were made in 1959 when Edwin Link and his wife Marion came to Israel to explore the port of Caesarea Maritima. The underwater remains of the submerged breakwaters may be seen from air in clear days and calm sea. At the terminus of one of the breakwaters, Link had discovered very large blocks that had been fastened together by iron clamps set in lead sockets. Link thought that these blocks might have been the remains of the colossal statues mentioned by Josephus, to adorn the harbors entrance.

In 1960, Link returned to Israel with a research vessel, Sea Diver II, a 28 m long steel craft suited with excavation, navigation and communication equipment. Working with aerial photos and the results of the divers surveys, Link was able to construct the basic plan of the submerged remains. The expedition also discovered a small medallion or token, identified by various scholars as depicting the harbor of Caesarea at its inauguration (10/9 BCE). The reverse of the medallion depicts a scene of a harbors entrance flanked by colossal statues, and the Greek letters KA in the upper field. However, this token may have been struck in Alexandria, perhaps in the reign of Antonius Pius (138-61) with no particular reference to Caesarea.

The Link Expedition to Caesarea was the starting point for years of underwater research carried out by the Israel Underwater Exploration Society (IUES), Caesarea Ancient Harbor Excavation Project (CAHEP) and Combined Ceasarea Explorations (CCE). In 1963, started the first international collaboration with Prof. Harold Edgerton from M.I.T. and his assistant Dr. Olivier Leenhardt, from the Oceanographic Museum at Monaco. The survey of the structures and wrecks buried under the sandy sea floor was made with Egertons invention "Mud Penetrater". This device was a low frequency echo sounder (12 kHz), which could plot submerged features. The "Mud Penetrater" was operated in the area of the sunken Herodian breakwater that had been surveyed previously by the Link Expedition. The results of the survey may be concluded as:

The coastline of the Roman era was at least 150-200 m further west of the present one. The divers have found two protruding high rocky blocks almost covered by sand, which might be the entrances towers.

2. The entrance to the ancient harbor is 350-400 m west to the northern Crusaders Wall tip, which is cut by the sea. The farthest part of the semi-circular breakwaters is more than 450 m from the present shore. One may recall that this was not a harbor dug on land such as Ostia, but an artificially built port in open waters.

3. Some stone blocks on the sea floor along the north and northwest lines of the sunken breakwaters are remains of artificial structures. Josephus tells about stone blocks that were thrown into water in large quantities and to a great depth.

In 1975-76, Avner Raban of Center for Maritime Studies (CMS), University of Haifa carried out an underwater survey in the outer Herodian breakwaters, for the Israel Electric Company. In 1979-89, the collaboration between A. Raban (CMS, University of Haifa) and Robert Hohlfelder of the University of Colorado, USA, founded the Caesarea Ancient Harbor Excavation Project (CAHEP). Other co-directors to joint the expedition were Peter Oleson from University of British Colombia, Canada, and Lindley Vann from the University of Maryland, USA and Raphael Stieglitz form the Rutgers University, USA. The project not only established that Josephus had described the breakwaters accurately but also recovered details on their design and construction.

The Joint Expeditions (JECM) and CAHEP had collaborated in the preparation of the Smithsonian Institutions exhibition "King Herods Dream", which was shown in Washington and than around USA from 1988-90. With this occasion was founded the Combined Caesarea Expeditions (CCE) under the direction of Avner Raban of the Leon Recanati Institute for Maritime Studies (RIMS) and Kenneth Holum of the University of Maryland, USA, that started work from 1989 since present. CCE extended the research of the northern sections of the western breakwater, known limits of the Hellenistic and Herodian Inner Harbor, the octagonal plan of an Early Christian church on the temple platform and the Early Islamic and Crusader dwellings within the Old City, the administration complex outside the Crusader Wall, and the Decumanus and also the northern part of the hippodrome (stadium).




Caesarea


The long history of Sebastos (Caesarea Maritima) stretches from Straton‘s Tower dated to the 4th century BC, the harbor constructed by King Herod (22-10/9 BC) and to the Late Byzantine period.




Caesarea


The information on the history of Caesarea and its harbor are found in the writings of Josephus Flavius: the Antiquities of Jews 15.331-39 and the Jewish Wars 1.408-15. Josephus had spent some time at Caesarea making detailed notes on the city and its harbor that was still functioning in the 1st century AD as much as it had in the last decade of the previous century (1st century BC).

Named by its founder Herod the Great in honor of Caesar Augustus (Herod’s patron), the city was the capital of the Roman province of Judea for about 600 years. To distinguish it from other cities with the same name and founded in the same period, it was also called Caesarea Maritima, Caesarea Palestina, etc. The port of Caesarea was named Limen Sebastos by Herod, Sebastos being the Greek equivalent of Augustus (in Latin).

In the 3rd century BC, during the Hellenistic period, the sandy hills along the eastern Mediterranean were given by the Persians to the Phoenicians who built a small fortified anchorage which they named Straton’s Tower. There is a common assumption that the name Straton is the Greek form of the Phoenician name Abdashtart (the name of two or three Sidonian kings). Another assumption is that the town was named after its founder, translated literally into Latin as Stratonis Turris and into Hebrew, Migdal Śar. More likely it seems that a Ptolemaic king founded the city with an anchorage and named it after one of his generals (a general named Straton served Ptolemy II, but he is not the founder of Straton’s Tower. Straton can also be a military title. In the Hellenistic citadel of Jerusalem, there was a tower named Straton, but it did not have any relation with the coastal settlement).

At the end of the 2nd century BC, Zoilos the tyrant of Dor, conquered Caesarea but it soon fell to the Hashmonean Alexander Jannaeus (100 BC). It seems that the first Jewish community was founded there during this time, but the rabbis excluded it from the borders of Palestine. To weaken the Hashmonean kingdom, Pompey annexed Straton’s Tower and other coastal town to the Roman Syria in 63 BC. The town was in a state of decay when Octavian, the future Caesar Augustus restored it to the Jewish state in 31 BC.

Between 22 and 10/9 BC, Herod built Caesarea on the site of Straton’s Tower. Above the main harbor and just to the east, Herod built a spacious platform upon which he erected a temple dedicated to the goddess Roma and the deified Emperor Augustus. Herod resettled the city with Jewish population as well as Greek speaking pagans. Caesarea became a typical city-state (polis) of the Hellenistic age, ruled by a city council and magistrates under a royal resident general.

When the Romans annexed Judea to the empire in AD 6, they made Caesarea the headquarter of the provincial governor and his administrative center. A Latin inscription found in the theatre records that Pontius Pilatus, prefect of Judea, dedicated a temple at Caesarea to the Emperor Tiberius. The city remained the capital of Judea, later called Palestina, until the end of the Byzantine period. In AD 66, in the eve of the First Jewish Revolt, Vespasian stayed at Caesarea and used it as his main base. After he became emperor, and in gratitude for his loyalty, Vespasian refunded the city as a Roman colony. In the 2nd and 3rd centuries, the city continued to profit from its links with the Roman emperors. Hadrian, who paid an imperial visit at Caesarea in AD 130, expanded the city’s aqueduct system and probably he also built the city’s stone circus. In response, the citizens dedicated a temple to Hadrian, and coins from the local mint depicted him as the colony’s founder. Other imperial visits were made by Septimius Severus in 199 or 201, and perhaps Severus Alexander in 231-232.

Christianity was founded at Caesarea within a few years after Jesus’ Crucifixion, when Saint Paul converted the Roman Centurion Cornelius (Acts 10). From the late 2nd century there is a renewed record of a Christian church with its own bishop. In the same period Jews resettled at Caesarea, being attracted by economic advantages. By AD 250, the city had a celebrated rabbinical academy and the Christian school of Origen, the outstanding scholar and theologist who assembled the famous library and compiled the hexapla text of the Bible. Within the Christian Empire (AD 4th-7th centuries), Caesarea’s population and economy expanded, as well as in the rest of Palestine.

In the Byzantine period, a new fortification wall enclosed a much larger urban space. The authorities built an additional aqueduct system (low-leveled covered aqueduct) and they continued to replace the city’s street pavements, following Herod’s original grid plan. When Christianity became the dominant religion, a church replaced Herod’s temple to Roma and Augustus on the temple platform.

In AD 530, the Roman emperor Justinian, promoted the governor stationed at Caesarea to proconsul. The city’s bishop also ranked as metropolitan of Palestina and Caesarea kept this prerogative even after AD 451, when the archbishop of Jerusalem obtained the rank of patriarch. The most famous bishop of Caesarea was the ecclesiastical historian and apologist Eusebius (bishop, AD 315 – 339), who recorded martyrdoms in the city’s amphitheatre under the last Roman emperor. Eusebius’ contemporary was Rabbi Abbahu, who taught his daughters Greek, visited the city’s baths and maintained excellent relations with pagan authorities. Another famous personality and result of city’s learned culture was Procopius of Caesarea (6th century).

By AD 500, tectonic actions and coastal surge had reduced parts of the Herodian breakwaters that became submerged reefs, being a hazard to navigation. The Emperor Anastasius (AD 492-517) undertook a major campaign to restore Sebastos, helping Caesarea to reach its high prosperity in the 6th century. During the 5th and the beginning of the 6th century, the relationship between the Christian majority and the Samarian and Jewish minorities deteriorated, and several conflicts took over by burning down the Church of Saint Procopius. These troubles presaged the invasion of the non-Christians in the 7th century. In AD 614, Persian army attacked Caesarea, but the city capitulated without serious resistance. The Roman army returned for a brief period in AD 628, but in 642 Caesarea fell to the Arab army after a seven months siege. Between the 7th and the 9th centuries, Caesarea suffered of heavily depopulation, buildings collapsed, the stone robbing took over and the harbor fell in disuse. By the 10th century, Caesarea re-emerged a prosperous town but on a much smaller scale. The Arab and Persian geographers el-Muqaddas and Nasir i-Khusrau, mention flourishing gardens and orchards, a fortification wall and a great mosque, apparently situated on what had been the Herodian temple platform.

In 1101, the Frankish king Baldwin I of Jerusalem and the Genoese fleet conquered Caesarea after a brief siege, and established a Crusader principality that lasted until 1265 (despite periods of reconquest). A Christian church replaced the Great Mosque on the temple platform. In 1251-1252, the French king Louis IX (Saint Louis) built the city’s fortification walls by "his own hands". In 1266, the Egyptian sultan Baybaras stormed Caesarea and in 1291, his successor leveled the city and other Crusader castles along the Levantine Coast of the Mediterranean. From time to time a squatter settlement existed among the ruins, but after 1291, Caesarea mostly remained desolated.




Caesarea


The Herodian harbor at Caesarea is one of the first kind in which Vitruvius descriptions (V.12. 4,5) for the use of hydraulic concrete in harbor construction were applied. The harbor was composed of three basins, one inside the other:

  1. The inner most was built on the basin made by the Phoenician inhabitants of the Stratons Tower, in the southwestern part of the city.
  2. The middle basin was in a natural bay protected from the N and S by rocky promontories.
  3. The outer basin is the largest of three, was artificially created by constructing breakwaters to enclose a vast area of open sea.



Caesarea


The underwater archaeological research carried out for the last 22 years by CAHEP (Caesarea Ancient Harbor Excavation Project) and CCE (Caesarea Combined Expedition) confirmed most of what Josephus had written on the construction of the Sebastos Harbor. The width and overall outline of the Herodian quays are quite accurate, but his claim about the water depth is very exaggerated.




Caesarea





Caesarea


The towers on both sides of the harbor entrance had been settled on sandy bottom. It seems that the western towers also served as sand catchers to prevent the silting of the harbors entrance. Also flushing currents kept the harbor channel silt -free and limited the accumulating sand bars on both sides in the open water.




Caesarea





Caesarea


A staircase led from the harbor to the temple platform. The foundation of this staircase built into ground water level, was revealed beneath the Byzantine stairs. Its method of construction is similar to that of the Herodian breakwater.




Caesarea


Middle Byzantine period (500-550 AD): The repairs and reconstruction of the vaults that were made during this period are attributed to Anastasius. The building project on the east side of the harbor basin included a garden, drainage channels, paved areas and a "reflective pool" fed by ground water found at the foot of the Herodian quay. The east quay was raised and widened. A column inserted in the quay was used as a mooring stone, presumably in the period when the water basin was deep enough to allow small vessels to anchor near the quay. The podium was raised and widened, serving as the setting ground for the octagonal church.




Caesarea


Later Byzantine period (550-640 AD): As a result of marine transgressions, the inhabitants were forced to elevate the surface of structures built in the harbor basin. The "reflection pool" and the garden were covered by massive amounts of fill. Buildings and storerooms were built on top of this fill. By this time the inner harbor was totally sand-locked.




Caesarea


The underwater excavations carried out on the breakwaters revealed a very complex technology of building and the most, the use of hydraulic concrete called pozzolana [actually the volcanic ash was called pozzolana; lime mixed with volcanic ash (pozzolana), being in contact with water or sea water, made the hydraulic concrete, that enabled the Romans to built bridges and harbor jetties]. Herod imported all the construction materials (wood, marble, glass, lead, etc.) and especially pozzolana, to build his unique harbor. Constructing the harbor, Herod wanted to create a safe shelter for large fleets "to lie anchor close to the shore" as well as quays for activities of loading and unloading the cargo from the anchored merchantmen. It seems that the outer basin was designed to accommodate passing fleets; probably the great grain fleets sailing from Alexandria to Rome.

Pozzolana

The Roman hydraulic concrete that hardens underwater is described in Book II.vi.1 (a ten volumes work; De Architectura), written by Vitruvius, in 25 BC. In this book he describes the origin of pozzolana and its use to make the concrete for structures and piers:

"There is a powder which, by nature produces wonderful results. It is found in the neighborhood of Baiae and in the lands of municipalities round Mount Vesuvius. This (pozzolana) being mixed with lime and rubble, not only furnishes strength to other buildings, but also, when piers are built in sea, they set under water And there would not be unless deep down they had huge blazing fires of sulphur, alum or pitch. Therefore the fire and vapors of flame within, flowing through the cracks, make that earthlight. And the tufa, which is found to come up there, is free from moisture. Therefore, when three substances formed in like manner by the violence of fire come into one mixture, they suddenly take up water and cohere together. They are quickly hardened by the moisture and made solid, and can be dissolved neither by the waves nor the power of the water."




Caesarea


The underwater archaeological researches carried out at Caesarea Maritima have revealed much of what Josephus did not see. The great breakwater had subsided through the centuries and what was originally at the water level is nowadays over 5-6 m bellow the sea level.

During the 1990-91 seasons, the divers discovered a series of wooden forms in which aggregate of pozzolana had been packed. One such form which had survived almost intact in its lower part was 14 x 17 m, and with its original height of 4 m, probably the depth of the sea floor at that site at the time of the construction. The discovery of more such concrete blocks poured in wooden caissons and the results of the previous investigations in the construction of the Herodian harbor, made possible to sum-up a general assumption on the construction phases:

Phase I

The first feature to built in the open sea was probably an artificial island, where eventually the main breakwater would be, some 500 m N-NW of the southern promontory (100 m long, 20 m wide) and about 350 m west of the stem of the northern breakwater. The island was built by a series of wooden formworks (caissons) packed with hydraulic cement (pozzolana, lime and rubble). The forms had been constructed on the shore in the traditional shell-first shipbuilding technique of that period. Than, each form was towed into position in the open sea and moored by iron chains in all four corners. The caissons were set as close as possible, thus to create a large platform. When the process of setting the caissons was finished, additional loads of pozzolana, lime and rubble were added into the caisson from barges, so as to cause a gradual even subsidence till it rested on a rubble cushion that was previously prepared on the sandy sea floor. The sides of the forms were retained with piles of rubble and the gaps between the caissons were filled with pozzolana packed in sacks. The combined platform, probably 30 x 60 m, was covered with paving slab stones, on which a large tower was built, probably the "Drusion" mentioned by Josephus and the assumed lighthouse. Another artificial island of a similar type of construction was placed half away long the perimeter of the main breakwater, at the turn of its course from west to north.

Phase II

The final phase

During this stage of building Sebastos, the southwestern and northern breakwaters were completed and the upper structures were built on top. Some of them were observed and described by Josephus. Towers and the vaulted stores were built on the spinal (main) quay. Subsidiary jetties were added dividing the harbor into three mooring basins, one within the other. Remains of a quay and jetty are found beneath the modern quay built atop about forty years ago.

At the tip of both breakwaters of the main basin there are huge masses of tumbling blocks, remains of the elaborated superstructures that crowned the harbors entrance. Some of these large blocks are over seven meters long. Other stones were carved with a hemispheric socket for wooden shafts for capstans on which, probably chains were rolled up across the entrance. In order to withstand the drag of the pulled chains the blocks were fastened to each other with iron clamps fixed in molten lead that was poured into cut grooves in the stone. Solidified flows of molten lead, which were found at the foot of the tumbling mass, 10 m bellow the sea level, indicate that the lead had been poured after the blocks were laid in place in the water. For such work, divers were needed to work underwater probably using snorkels for breathing. Such professional divers were known in the Roman world as urinatores.




Caesarea


The subsiding of the Herodian breakwaters created an underwater obstacle that prevented the use of the basin to its east even as an open anchorage. On top of the main breakwater were found several concentrations of broken amphorae and ballast stones, evidence that ships were wrecked while trying to sail over this sunken reef (breakwater), on their way to the shore. The 4th century remains, provide the latest date of the final submergence of the Herodian harbor. During this period, the bay to the south was apparently used as a semi-protected anchorage area, where ships loaded and unloaded merchants in small boats (lighters) that, carried them to be stored in the vaulted barrel warehouses on the coast. These structures also formed the raised area of hanging gardens of the Byzantine and Arabic periods.




Caesarea


On top of the northern part of the main breakwater (Area K 5), was found a group of five lead ingots that were cast in the same form (each ingot weighted from 60 to 70 kg). They have a trapeze cross-section and on top are found an elongated Latin inscription "IMP.DOMIT.CAESAR.AVG.GER.". The inscription is related to the Emperor Domitianus (81-96 AD); he earned this title after his victory in Germany, in 84 AD. These ingots probably were cast in the late 80s or the beginning of the 90s of the first century AD. The other inscriptions found on the sides of the ingots relate to the weight of 200 Roman Libra. The inscription "MET.DART." (Metalia Dardanica), is found on all five ingots. It attests the origin of the lead and silver mines within the Roman Empire; such a place was Dardania, within the Cosovo area, near Bosnia. The date of the ingots indicates the exact period when the ship wrecked and also the date of the ruined Sebastos, in the late 1st century AD, about one hundred years after its building and inauguration.




Caesarea


Zaraza Friedman


Caesarea


Topographie

Republik Tunesien
heutiger Ort: Tunis, Stadtteil Byrsa
Koordinaten: ca. 36° 55’ N - 10° 10’ E




Carthage


Zwar haben schon 1908-13 Grabungen im Gebiet der Häfen stattgefunden, so waren es aber hauptsächlich die Grabungen im Rahmen der internationalen UNESCO-Rettungsaktion seit 1973, welche im Vorfeld der sich ständig ausbreitenden Villengebiete am Stadrand des modernen Tunis an den Lagunen durchgeführt wurden, welche größtenteils zur Erforschung der Hafenanlagen beigetragen haben. Die Grabungen des runden Hafens standen unter englischer Leitung, die des rechteckigen Hafens unter amerikanischer Leitung.




Carthage


Von der im Zuge der städtebaulichen Maßnahmen zur Neustadt errichteten imposanten Hafenanlage, welche uns Appian schildert, sind aus grabungstechnischen Gründen nur kleine Ausschnitte bekannt. So wurde nur auf der Insel sowie nördlich derselben gegraben, ebenso westlich des Tophet am rechteckigen Hafen (Handelshafen). Die stratigraphische Abfolge auf der Insel ergibt eine Abfolge von sechs Kulturperioden, von ca. 400 bis zur byzantinischen Epoche am Ende des siebten nachchristlichen Jahrhunderts (s. Übersichtstabelle aus Hurts 1979).
Erst im archäologisch nachweisbaren Höhepunkt der Stadtentwicklung, welche den politischen Ereignissen zu widersprechen scheint, nämlich in den 50 Jahren, welche der schweren Niederlage des zweiten punischen Krieges 202 v.Chr folgten, erfolgte der Ausbau der Häfen in ihrer von Appian (einer Textstelle von Polybios zitierend) uns überlieferten monumetalen Weise: Kriegs-, Werft- und Handelshäfen. Hafenanlagen vor dem 4.Jh. sind gänzlich unbekannt. Zur genauen Lage der Hafenanlagen früherer Zeit liegen bisher nur Vermutungen vor. Vermutlich lag der archaische Hafen Karthagos in der Bucht du Kram südlich des heutigen Lagunengebietes, im jenem Gebiet wo in späterer Zeit die Hafeneinfahrt vermutet wird ("Quadrilatere du Falbe").


Der Hafen bis um die Mitte des 4.Jhs.v.Chr.
(keyword channel) Im Bereich der späteren Häfen fanden sich Spuren eines mindestens 350 m langen, 2 m tiefen von Menschenhand geschaffenen 15-20 m breiten Kanals (F 469).  Er schneidet mittig die spätere "Admiralitäts-Insel" und verläuft schräg zwischen dem späteren rechteckigen Hafen und dem Tophet vorbei südwestlich wo er auch in den amerikanischen Grabungen erfaßt wurde. Er diente als breiter Drainagekanal vermutlich zur Sanierung des sumpfigen Lagunengeländes und stand (anhand von Muschelresten nachweisbar) mit dem offenen Meer in Verbindung. Aus diesem Grunde und wegen seiner Breite diente er vermutlich auch gleichzeitig als Kanalhafen. Er wurde im Laufe des 4.Jhs. zugefüllt, wobei das Datum seiner Aushebung nicht genau festgelegt werden kann. Er mag aber, wie anhand der Stratigraphie der Sedimente erkennbar, nicht lange in Benutzung gewesen sein. Zeitgleich zu dieser Anlage mögen die im Gebiet der "Admiralitäts-Insel" festgestellten länglichen Holzstrukturen (Hellinge ?) im Bereich der späteren Schiffshäuser sowie die im westlichen Gebiet ergrabenen Handwerkerbetriebe gehören (Metallverarbeitung, Töpfereibetriebe).

Die punischen Häfen Ende des 3.- Anfang des 2. Jhs.v.Chr.
(keyword basin) Die Hafenanlagen dieser Zeit sind nur spurenhaft erhalten. Es sind dies die Anlagen aus der Endzeit des punischen Karthagos, wie sie uns Appian auf eine Quelle zur Zeit der römischen Eroberung 146 v.Chr. zurückgehend beschreibt (Appian VIII 96). Der kreisrunde Militärhafen und der mit ihm in Verbindung stehende rechteckige Handelshafen, wurden  unter erheblichem Aufwand gebaut. Große Erdreichmassen mußten hierzu ausgehoben und aufgeschüttet werden. So umschließt allein der Handelshafen ein Gebiet von ca. 123.000 Kubikmeter Erde (ca. 150 x 400 m, T. 2.00 m), während der Kriegshafen mit geschätzten 115.000 Kubikmeter etwas kleiner war. Allein ca. 10.000 Kubikmeter mußten aufgechüttet werden, um auf der Insel die nötige schräg-konische Oberfläche zu gestalten für die Hellinge. Hinzu kämen die weiteren Schiffshäuser rund um den Rundkanal, welche die Insel umgibt.




Carthage


Marcus Heinrich Hermanns


Carthage


Republik Italien, Region Toskana, Provinz Rom
heutiger Ort: Civitavecchia
Koordinaten: 42° 05' N - 11° 50' E




Civitavecchia


Civitavecchia liegt nördlich von Rom, an der Küste Südetruriens ca. 4 Meilen nördlich von Kap Linaro, des einzigen natürlichen Vorsprungs an der tyrrhenischen Küste nördlich der Tibermündung. Heutiger Industrie- und Fährhafen (Überfahrten nach Sardinien).




Civitavecchia


Ursprünglich als künstlicher Hafen einer (kaiserlichen) Villa wurde dieser Hafen unter Kaiser Trajan (98-117 n.Chr.) angelegt (Plinius d.J., epist.VI 31,1: 106 n.Chr.) an einer relativ flach und geraden Küste. Die halbkreisförmigen Molen mit der mittig angelegten Insel sind heute noch Bestandteile des modernen Hafens.  Nach dem Niedergang von Ostia übernahm dieser über die Via Aurelia gut erreichbare Hafen die Rolle des Seehafens von Rom. Noch 416 n.Chr. findet dieser Hafen im "Itinerarium Antonini" Erwähnung. In der Renaisance wurde nach den in dem Werke "Nautica mediterranea" von B.Crescenzio (1602) dargelegten Plänen und Hinweisen zum wichtigsten Hafen des Kirchenstaates ausgebaut. Die ovale, zangenartige Anordnung der Molen des Hafens von Civitavechia, als dem typischen Renaissancehafen und als einer der wichtigsten Häfen des Kirchenstaates,  findet in den Kolonnaden des Architekten Giovanni Lorenzo Bernini vor dem Petersdom in Rom (erbaut 1657-1667) einen architektonischen Anklang (der Hafen als symbolischem Schutzort der Pilger).





Civitavecchia





Civitavecchia


Marcus Heinrich Hermanns


Civitavecchia


Topographie
Republik Italien, Region Toskana, Provinz Groseto
nächstliegende heutige Ortschaft: Ansedonia
Koordinaten: ca. 42° 20’ N - 11° 05’ E




Cosa


Kleines Vorgebirge südöstlich des Monte Argentario, ca. 46 km von Grosseto, 139 km nördlich von Rom gelegen. Höchster Punkt 113 m üNN.




Cosa


Die Stadt Cosa lag in einer in der antike reichsten Regionen Italiens auf einen Hügel über dem Meer gelegen. Am Fuß der 273 v.Chr. nach dem Sieg über Vulci und Volsinii gegründeten latinischen Kolonie(Plinius NH III 51) wurde der Portus Cosanus, der Hafen, gebaut und das ganze Hinterland wurde mit weitausholenden Infrastruktureinrichtungen versehen (Villa delle Colonne, Villa Settefinestre). Im Verlauf von etwa hundert Jahren wurde die hinter dem Hafen liegende Binnenlagune (heutiger Rest: Buraner See unterhalb von Capalbio) durch eine tiefe Felsenkluft im Vorgebirge von Ansedonia, den Spacco della Regina mit dem Meer verbunden und entwässert, wobei zugleich bestimmte Strömungen erzeugt wurden, die das Hafenbecken spülten und dafür sorgten, dass es nicht versandete. Der Hafen erreichte den Höhepunkt seiner Entwicklung im 1. Jh.v.Chr., als die Molen aus der früheren Periode verlängert und ausgebaut wurden und die Kluft, die möglicherweise durch Geröll /Erdmaßen versperrt war, durch einen künstlichen Einschnitt, der sog. tagliatta ersetzt wurde. In der Lagune wurde Fischzucht betrieben und zu diesem Zweck war die tagliatta mit Schotten versehen. Vielleicht hatte die Stadt noch einen zweiten Hafen auf der anderen Seite des Vorgebirges, am Ausgangspunkt des Tombolo di Feniglia. Ein Portus Fenilie ist in spätantiken und mittelalterlichen Urkunden dokumentiert und könnte auch schon in spätrepublikanischer Zeit bestanden haben, wie die Anhäufungen von Amphoren, die man in der Flur Pineta gefunden hat, vermuten lassen. Reste einer Fischkonservierungsanlage sowie einer Villa maritima runden den Gesamtblick ab. Die Entwicklung vom Stadthafen zu einem werkseigenen Hafen eines an einer Villa angeschlossenen Fischverarbeitungsbetriebes mit Amphorenproduktion ist eine einzigartige Kombination (Fabrik der Sestii). Hier werden nur die zum Hafen gehörigen Bauten besprochen.




Cosa


Innerhalb des Hafenbeckens wurde ein ca. 13.50 m langes und 3.40 m breites Rumpffragment eines Schiffes gefunden. Die rekonstruierte Länge beträgt ca.15 m. Erhalten ist der Kiel und 29 Spanten mit Beplankung. Das Schiff stammt aus dem spätem 16.Jh.; seine Ladung bestand aus Eisenerz.


Der Hafen lag an der Küstenroute nach Gallien und Spanien, als Sprungbrett nach Sardinien und Korsica. Zusammen mit Portus Herculis (heute Port San Ercole) eine der wenigen natürlich geschützten Ankermöglichkeiten von Portus Lunae (La Spezia) im Norden und Portus Caietae (Gaeta) im Süden, sieht man einmal von der Tibermündung ab. Zudem lag die Stadt an der später angelegten Via Aurelia antica.




Cosa


Das Stadtgebiet war seit 1948 eine amerikanische Grabung unter der Leitung der American Academy in Rome. Erste Untersuchungen zum Hafenareal 1965. Weitere Kampagnen zu Lande und zu Wasser 1968, 1969 und 1972. Untersuchungen zur Lagunenentwicklung durch die Fondazione Lerici (Rom) 1970, 1971, 1972. Diverse Nachuntersuchungen in den 90er Jahren.




Cosa


Die direkt zur Hafenanlage gehörig anzusehenen Strukturen bestehen aus diversen Molenwerken, darunter eine breite, heute gänzlich überspülte Aufschüttung, mehrere Blöcke im Wasser, welche in knieartigen Bogen von der Spitze der Aufschüttung die Bucht abschließen sowie fünf schräg-parallel zur Küste liegende massive Blöcke in römischem Betongußmauerwerk.




Cosa


Der Hafen wurde seit der Koloniegründung 273 v.Chr. verwendet und war bis Mitte 3.Jhs.n.Chr. in Verwendung (villa maritima). Die kleinzonenartig durchgeführten Caisson-Sondagen unterwasser (trenches C1-3, D 2-3) konnten die stratigraphische Abfolge anhand vom archäologischem Material einengen.Eine Benutzung in etruskischer Zeit läßt sich anhand des archäologischen Materials nicht feststellen. Der ursprüngliche Hafenboden konnte in einer Tiefe von 1.00-2.10 m Tiefe unter der heutigen Sedimentoberfläche oder 5.10-6.20 unter der heutigen Wasserkante festgestellt werden. Dies entspräche ca. 4.10-5.20 unter dem geschätzten antiken Meeresniveau. Der antike Untergrund stellte sich als brackische Sandschicht mit römischen Scherben und Kleinschotter vermischt dar.
Neben Tuff aus dem Gebiet des Lago Bolsena sowie Puzzolanerde aus dem Gebiet von Puteoli wurde als drittes Baumaterial Amphorenfragmente verwendet. Die im Pier 1 vermauerten Fragmente geben einen terminus post quem für das Ende des 2.Jhs.v.Chr. Die Bearbeiter gehen davon aus, daß der oben erwähnte Unterschied in den Baumaterialien zwischen dem unteren und dem oberen Bereich auf verschiedene Bauphasen zurückzuführen sei. Es wären somit drei Phasen in der Entwicklung des Hafens festzustellen:
- Molenaufschüttung und deren Verlängerung durch Blöcke (3.-Anfang 2.Jhs.v.Chr)
- Betonblöcke, zweiphasig (4.Viertel 2.Jh.-Ende 1.Jh.v.Chr)




Cosa


Handelsaktivitäten sind im Hafen von Cosa seit dem 3.Jh.v.Chr. anhand von Funden greco-italischer Amphoren nachweisbar. Zahlreich bekannt sind die in römischer Zeit errichteten Hafenschutzanlagen in Betonmauerwerk, insbesonders entlang der Küste des Tyrrhenischen Meeres, sind doch hier die geschützten natürlichen Buchten eine Seltenheit (z.B.Golf von Baia). Die von Vitruv (V 12) geschilderte Mauertechnik des Betongußwerkes wurde häufig für den Bau von Molen und Wellenbrechern verwendet. Hauptbestandteil war die Pozzuolanerde, einem Baumaterial, ähnlich dem heutigem Portland-Zement, dessen besondere Eigenschaft ist selbst unter Wasser abzubinden. Die bekanntesten Molenbauwerke sind: Centumcellae-Civitavecchia, Antium-Anzio, Anxur-Terracina, .... Von all diesen Anlagen ist Cosa vermutlich das älteste bisher angenommene römische Molenwerk. Die Datierung in Cosa beruht auf im Beton verarbeitete gestempelte Amphorenfragmente, welche den Stempel SES(tius) aufweisen (terminus post quem: Ende 2.Jh.v.Chr.). Der früheste Großbau an Land in der "opus caementitium" genannten Bautechnik wäre in Rom am Tiberhafen (Marmorata) gelegene Porticus Aemilia, erbaut 193 v.Chr.


Die Reste von hauptsächlich in den Felsen gehauenen Kanalsielen sowie die Frischwasserbecken dienten vermutlich weniger zur Verproviantierung, sondern sind vielmehr in Verbindung mit dem Industrieviertel zu sehen. Neben der Fischzucht in der Binnenlagune ist sowohl die Fischverarbeitung wie auch die Verschiffung des Endproduktes belegt. Amphorenherstellung und Speicherbauten runden das Bild einer Fischverarbeitungsfabrik ab. Neben der Fischzucht ist auch der (Thunfisch-)Fischfang literarisch überliefert. Strabo (V 2,8) berichtet über einen auf dem Vorgebirge gelegenen Ausguck. Vergleiche aus römischer Zeit solcher Fischverarbeitungbetriebe sind aus Südspanien und Nordafrika bekannt. Solche Anlagen waren bis in die Mitte des 20.Jhs. auf Sizilien in Funktion ("tonnare"). Höhepunkt des Fischereibetriebes war die Zeit des letzten Viertels des 2. bis Ende des 1.Jhs. v.Chr. In diesem Zusammenhang sei auf den Wrackfund von Grande Congloue an der südfranzösischen Küste hingewiesen (110-80 v.Chr,), deren Hauptladung aus Amphoren der Sestier bestand. Amphoren dieses Typs fanden sich bis ins Rheinland.




Cosa


Marcus Heinrich Hermanns


Cosa





Cyprus-Ports


Cyprus’s geographical position at the eastern end of the Mediterranean, allowing it to act as a crossroad of civilizations, was the factor that determined the role of the island throughout history. Although isolated, Cyprus is visible and easily accessible from surrounding mainland. In contrast to most Mediterranean islands offers large areas of cultivatable land. Thick forests cover its mountains providing timber for shipbuilding and sufficient fuel to extract precious copper from ore that originated within the extensive mountain ranges. At the same time, predominant winds and currents in Eastern Mediterranean made Cyprus an inevitable stop-over on the sea routes that joined the Aegean with the Syro-palestinian and African coasts, and vice-versa. For this reason Cyprus’s fortune has tended to rely on the strategic position that it holds along these sea routes. Considering that up to and including part of the 20th Century all contact with island was undertaken by sea, it is natural to assume that a network of carefully placed harbours would exist that could shelter, supply and repair the plethora of ships and boats that existed.

Results of archaeological research have revealed human presence on Cyprus as early as 9000 BC. There is evidence that by the Early Bronze Age contact with the nearby mainland was occurring, although no facilities that would indicate a level of port organization have been uncovered. By the Middle Bronze Age new cultural elements coupled with dynamic economic development bears witness to an increased level of contact with the Anatolian and Syro-palestinian cultures. The exploitation of copper soon became a significant resource with which Cyprus, called Alasia(?) in ancient texts of that time, was often mentioned as being a copper-producing island. Concurrently, the first imported Minoan artifacts are found at sites in Cyprus, as well as the first clay model of boats. Probable areas that received and channeled this increased contact are the Bay of Morphou, the Lapithos’s area in the north, and (in the 16th Century BC) the area of Kalopsida in the south without, however, identifying specific sites or marine-orientated structures.

The beginning of the Late Bronze Age reveals the first cities on Cyprus, with influences predominantly from the Syro-palestinian area, which had at their disposal some form of harbour facility. Specifically, the site of Egomi, which served as the port for the inland site of Kalopsida in the Middle Bronze Age, and the site of Hala Sultan Tekke near the saltpans of Larnaca, which was succeeded by the city of Kition. At the same time Mycenaean presence becomes evident on Cyprus, first through trade ventures and later through colonies, in which the cities of Egomi and Kition reached an advanced state of organisation and development. The latter part of the Late Bronze Age is characterized by turmoil of the "sea people", and the second influx of Mycenaens who introduce the Aegean culture on the island. Thus, at the beginning of the 1st millennium, within the Mycenean social and political framework, kingdoms were established who traced their origins to the heroes of the Trojan War.

The earliest references of the Geometric period from Cyprus indicate established cities and kingdoms (Stele of Sargon, Prism or Esarhaddon) where certain Homeric traditions and customs were maintained well into the Classical period. However, settlements at Amathous and the Kition area proved an exception since Phoenicians and the "eteocypriot" population settled these areas. By the end of the 4th Century BC the Cypriot kingdoms became part of the Hellenistic world, first under Alexander and then the Ptolemaic successors, eventually falling under Roman and latter under Byzantine control.

Cities, kingdoms, and harbours examined here clockwise from the northwest promontory of Akamas are as follows: Marion, Soloi, Lapithos, Kyrenia, Salamis, Kition, Amathus, Kourion, and Paphos. There also witnessed inland the kingdoms of Tamassos, Idalion and possibly Ledrae and Chytroi. As individual city states and kingdoms based on the Greek prototype, the cities of Cyprus that had access to the sea constructed and maintained harbour facilities for their own use. Strabo for example when referring to Praxandros and Laconians who established Lapithos, states that they formed the shoreline to accept vessels. Throughout history, however, the importance of each individual city or "state" with its respective harbour fluctuated according to external as much as internal social, political, economic, and strategic influences. Thus, a general image of the larger harbours is revealed, such as Salamis on the eastern coast, which took precedence over all other cities until the end of the Classical period, and Paphos on the west coast that inherited the role of Salamis during the Hellenistic and Roman period due to its access to sea routes that connected the Aegean with the Levant, and Alexandria. Competition between Salamis and the Phoenician colony of Kition, located further south, was constant, due to Kition’s dynamic economy and swift access to the Syro-palestinian coast. The harbours of Soloi and Marion provided a platform for the export of copper from the Skouriotissa and Limni mines respectively as well as the products of their fertile inland. These harbours, located on the two western bays of the northern coastline, were the closest to the Aegean and were orientated and influenced in that direction. The eastern and the central sections of the north coast were divided between the cities of Lapithos, and further east Kyrenia, whose orientation was expectedly towards the nearby Anatolian coast. The harbours of Amathous and Kourion on the southern coast were on the route between Rhodes and Egypt, and the Syro-palestinian coast via Paphos. Kourio, being further west orientated its efforts towards the Aegean, whilst Amathous, which consolidated the "eteocypriots" and was located near to the Phoenician city of Kition, was closely tied to the Levant. Aside from the main economic orientation of the harbours there also existed a plethora of trade networks that is evident in the archaeological record.

The harbours also functioned as naval bases for individual cities to protect terrestrial and marine interests, and through the naval assets to express the power and prestige of each. The main harbours that divided the coastal region co-existed with many havens, anchorages, and smaller harbours that are attested to from surviving texts. Early research concerning the ancient harbours of Cyprus by K. Nikolaou indicated nineteen harbours. This figure includes the sites of Arsinoe (Famagusta) and Leukolla (Protaras) in the Salamis area; Palaepahos, Zephyrion and Arsinoe (unidentified city) to the south of Paphos; Limenia (Limnitis), Melabron (Agia Irini) in the kingdom of Soloi area; and the sites of Makaria (Cape Moulos), Karpasia (Rizokarpaso), and Ourania (known as Aphendrica, east of Karpasia) on the eastern most area of the north coast (Map). He also states, "The reported cities and villages were the most important trade centers. There still remain a number of villages and settlements where there were not ports, although maritime activity was taking place especially during the summer season. There are many such sites, which cannot be enumerated here. Furthermore, remains of quays can be traced in many of these sites, and many natural bays were also used for the same purpose". Consideration must also be taken for regions where some form of survey has been undertaken, such as the sites of Kioni, Maniki, Thalassines Spilies, and Keratidhi along the coast between the Akamas peninsula and Paphos, and similarly the sites of Cape Elia (ancient Knidhos(?) near Agios Theodoros, and Vocolida on the north coast.

Underwater surveys have been undertaken at the harbour of Amathus by the French Archaeological School at Athens, and the naval harbour of Kition, which is a terrestrial site, whilst the University of Colorado has researched the harbour of Paphos. Finally, Flemming conducted surveys at Salamis in 1973. For the remaining sites archaeology relies on ancient sources and surface surveys (including underwater) to determine maritime activity. However, careful research and survey could certainly reveal many more sites that offered a harbour, an anchorage, or a safe haven to ancient mariners.




Cyprus-Ports





Dor


Country - Israel

Locality - Dor Farm/Tantura and Nachsholim Kibbutz

Hellenistic name – Dora (Δώρα)

Findspot – c.27 km south of Haifa, c.13 km north of Caesarea

Coordinates - Longitude 34º54‘40‘‘

Latitude 32º36’50’’




Dor


Dor is a significant coastal site with a long and varied maritime history. Archaeological surveys and excavations on the Tel were carried out since the early 1920’s. Underwater surveys were made during 1962-67 by the volunteer divers of the Underwater Exploration Society of Israel (UESI). They spent hundreds of hours searching the seabed of the Tantura Lagoon and around Tel Dor to trace archaeological evidence of the ancient harbors and the nautical activities. From 1973 on, faculty members and students of the Department of Graduate Studies of the History of Maritime Civilizations, at the University of Haifa, have carried out annual field seasons at Dor. From 1979 to 1984, the Center for Maritime Studies in collaboration with the Dor Excavations Project held a series of probes, limited trial excavations and the study of most of the known maritime installations in their geomorphological and archaeological stratified context. The Center made underwater surveys and onshore observations, tracing archaeologically dated evidence for the ancient sea-levels. They also plotted man-made structures and installations that may refer to the changes in land-sea relation over the centuries. Trial excavations were carried out along the shoreline of the Tel in 1981, ’82, ’83 and ’85. These excavations, far from being complete, revealed a multitude of installations dated between the Middle Bronze Age to the Byzantine period. The discoveries included harbor features such as quays, a landing stage, slipways, wave-catchers, that testify to the richness and complexity of maritime activities throughout the history of Dor. Other installations were fish-ponds, washing-channels, wave-catchers and purple-dye facilities.




Dor


Sometime, during the 13th and the end of the 12th century BCE (dated by the pottery sherds), the sea level rose and the kurkar reef at the entrance of the bay was flooded, thus the bay was exposed to more wave energy. This change was observed from the character of the sediments along the quay. The rising sea forced the people at Dor to raise their quays accordingly along with other waterfront structures. On the south slop of the Tel were traced two higher quays, also built of slim kurkar headers in area A and a retaining wall or quay Q. Towards the middle of the 11th century BCE, the eustatic trend reversed from transgression to regression. The harbor facilities at the south of the Tel came out of function and the area was incorporated into the built terrestrial settlement. The growing power of the Israelites in the hinterland and that of the Tyrian and Sidonians on the high seas weakened the domain of the Sikuli (Sea Peoples). When the Israelites came to Dor in the 10th century BCE, most of the structures were in ruins and probably covered by sliding soil fill and debris from the southern side of the Tel. It seems that the maritime activities at Dor diminished through the Persian and the Hellenistic period.




Dor


The western side of Tel Dor is protected by a series of partly submerged islands. They are part of the western aeolianite sandstone (kurkar - carbonate cemented quartz sandstone) ridge that runs on the north-south axis, parallel to the narrow shore and the Carmel Range to the east. To the north of the Tel is a bay, partially protected by an island and is still used as a natural anchorage for fishing boats. To the south of the Tel was the main anchorage, today separated by a tombolo (sandbar), and now is comprised by the South Bay and the Tantutura Lagoon. In earlier periods, this bay was the northern edge of the lagoon. The series of several islands (part of the western kurkar ridge) that form the lagoon provide a protected body of water. This lagoon is a natural anchorage still used for anchoring fishing boats.

Dor may have been among the Levantine coastal cities used by Thutmose III, that served as stations for his troops moved by ships during the Syrian campaigns. The Canaanite harbors served as a line of forward bases to shelter the ships of Thutmose carrying his troops via sea, sparing time consuming march by land. The harbor installations found at Dor are the first to be attributed to one of the Sea Peoples (the Sikuli, attested in a historical records).

A unique structure found at Dor is the rock-cut slipways to the north of the Tel and on the southern edge of the North Bay. In the South Bay there is a sandstone (kurkar) slabs platform built in the "headers" technique, that became the trademark of the Phoenician harbor installations. This structure is assumed to be a paved quay or a landing stage for the ships on loading or unloading the merchants close to the shore.

 

Parallels

Some of the maritime installations at Dor may be compared to site in the Mediterranean and also to a closeness to their date of construction. The only Bronze Age harbor that has stone quays is found at Mallia, Crete, being dated to the Minoan period. There, the quays are accessible via a rock-cut navigational channel leading from the open sea to an inner lagoon. A quay platform paved with stone slabs, similar to the one found at Dor and also contemporary with it is found at Kition, Cyprus. Both sites (Dor and Kition) were settled by maritime people during the late 13th century BCE. Excavations made at Maa-Palaeokastro, on the west coast of Cyprus and Ras Ibn-Hanni, in Syria, revealed some ashlar "headers" structures were related to the new comers from the sea with a material culture similar to that of the Sea Peoples.




Dor


 

 
 




Dorestad



The most extensive excavations of Dorestad took place from 1967-1977, during which approximately 30 ha were exposed. The area of the Early-Medieval settlement begins approximately 1 km north of the Late-Medieval town centre of Wijk bij Duurstede and disappears almost 2 km south under the Lek dike. The settlement may have extended at least 1 km further south, representing a total length of about 3 km.
Dorestad must have been made up of three parts: the northern harbour district, a central part and a castellum-quarter to the south (the remnants of the former Roman castellum Levefanum).
The northern harbour district was divided in three parts: the actual harbour in the Carolingian Rhine bed, adjoining on the left bank the trading settlement - the vicus in the strict sense of the word - and behind it an area of agricultural character with scattered farmbuildings (see fig.1). The analysis of the data has so far concentrated on the harbour, the main subject of this homepage.
 


Dorestad


fig.1: after fig.2 in: W.A.van ES, `Dorestad centred', in: J.C.Besteman, J.M.Bos & H.A.Heidinga, Medieval Archaeology in the Netherlands, Assen/Maastricht 1990.
fig.2: after fig. on page 171 in: W.A.,van ES, H.Sarfaty & P.J.Woltering, Archeologie in Nederland, Amsterdam 1988.
fig.3: fig.8 in: W.A.van Es & W.J.H.Verwers, Excavations at Dorestad 1. The Harbour: Hoogstraat I. Nederlandse Oudheden 9, Amersfoort 1980.
fig.4: after fig.21 in: W.A.van Es & W.J.H.Verwers, Excavations at Dorestad 1. The Harbour: Hoogstraat I. Nederlandse Oudheden 9, Amersfoort 1980.
fig. 5: fig.11c in: W.A.van Es & W.J.H.Verwers, Excavations at Dorestad 1. The Harbour: Hoogstraat I. Nederlandse Oudheden 9, Amersfoort 1980.
fig. 6: fig.10c in: W.A.van Es & W.J.H.Verwers, Excavations at Dorestad 1. The Harbour: Hoogstraat I. Nederlandse Oudheden 9, Amersfoort 1980.
fig.7: after fig.21 in: W.A.van Es & W.J.H.Verwers, Excavations at Dorestad 1. The Harbour: Hoogstraat I. Nederlandse Oudheden 9, Amersfoort 1980.
fig.8: after fig.21 in: W.A.van Es & W.J.H.Verwers, Excavations at Dorestad 1. The Harbour: Hoogstraat I. Nederlandse Oudheden 9, Amersfoort 1980.
fig.9: fig.15c in: W.A.van Es & W.J.H.Verwers, Excavations at Dorestad 1. The Harbour: Hoogstraat I. Nederlandse Oudheden 9, Amersfoort 1980.
fig.10: fig.16c in: W.A.van Es & W.J.H.Verwers, Excavations at Dorestad 1. The Harbour: Hoogstraat I. Nederlandse Oudheden 9, Amersfoort 1980.
fig.11: after fig.21 in: W.A.van Es & W.J.H.Verwers, Excavations at Dorestad 1. The Harbour: Hoogstraat I. Nederlandse Oudheden 9, Amersfoort 1980.
fig.12: after fig.21 in: W.A.van Es & W.J.H.Verwers, Excavations at Dorestad 1. The Harbour: Hoogstraat I. Nederlandse Oudheden 9, Amersfoort 1980.




Dorestad





Dover


Dover as a town was created in Roman times, in the first century AD. Before that there was occupation of the area in prehistoric times, and particularly in the Bronze Age, about 1600-1000 BC, when there was a maritime use of the river valley and the coast. A well-preserved Bronze Age plank-built boat was found in the river valley associated with a fresh-water environment, and in the sea was a large concentration of bronze artefacts suggesting the site of a wreck, though it is possible that it was a hoard of weapons and tools that had once been on land and had fallen into the sea due to erosion.


Dover


Very limited archaeological research in Dover has occurred in the distant past, and these alone do not give a clear picture of the topography of the Roman port. From 1970 onwards a major programme of excavation, particularly by Brian Philp but also by the Canterbury Archaeological Trust, has transformed our understanding of the port. The Classis Britannica forts with its barracks, the Saxon Shore fort and the medieval defences have all been found. Little new work has occurred on the waterfront structures, however, so the harbour works remain largely unknown.




Dover


The shape of the Roman harbour is not known. Remains of Roman timber structures have been found in the bottom of the valley suggesting that there was a harbour at the mouth of the River Dour, with a quayside on the river bank. Structures include a possible harbour arm, found in 1855, which may have been about 4m wide, built from squared timbers in a box-like construction.

The possible quay with an embankment wall of chalk blocks was found elsewhere, and on yet another site was a possible jetty also of chalk blocks. All possibly date from the late 1st - 2nd centuries AD.




Dover


P. Marsden


Dover


See this text in


Eretria


The site of Eretria, ancient city of Euboea, has been identified from the point of view of archaeological excavations with the modern town situated 20 km southeast of Chalkis in Cental Euboea.

Eretria stretches along the west end of a narrow coastal plain. Surrounded by the mountain chain of Euboean Olympus to the north and west, it is dominated to the east by Mount Servouni, a southern offshoot of the mountain range of Dirfis. Its southern side is washed by the Gulf of Euboea that divides Eretria from the coasts of Eastern Attica.

The coastal plain is overlooked by the calcareous hill of Kasteli. On that site, as revealed by archaeological finds, stood the acropolis of Eretria in classical times. The hill, inaccessible from the north, together with three gulfs to the south, and a number of rocky islets provided a unique fortification that commanded the sea route to the southern part of the Gulf of Euboea, as well as the road axis that stretched from Central Euboea to the southeast.




Eretria


Human presence in the area of Eretria dates to the proto-Neolithic Period. On the site of present-day Eretia and in the vicinity of the Temple of Apollo Daphnephoros were found traces of a settlement dating to the Early Helladic I; said settlement expanded in Early Helladic II to the north and south, occupying the hill of classical acropolis and the Pezonisi islet.

In ancient Greek texts, mention of Eretria was first made in the Homeric works (Iliad B, 537), as one of the cities of Euboea that took part in the Trojan War.

In the 9th and 8th century BC the town flourished greatly due to extensive maritime commerce. Its maritime wealth is evidenced by the close relations it developed with areas of the Eastern Mediterranean, mainly Syria, Palestine and Cyprus. Eretria also experienced prosperity in the 8th century, it participated in the second phase of the Greek colonization together with Chalkis and established in the Gulf of Neapoli the colony of Pithikouses (modern Iskia). In northern Aegean, the most important colony of Eretria was Mendi in Chalkidiki.

The Eretrian supremacy at sea, resonant of the events that took place in the geometric and early archaic period, enjoys particular mention in the ancient Greek texts.

The name of the town itself is derived from the noun "Eretmon" (in Greek oarsman) and according to archaeologist Nikolaos KONDOLEON it aims to show the "town whose inhabitants never cease to row".

The pure maritime character of the city is attested on the one hand by the cult of Eretrian hero Nafstolos in the area of the closed port, and by the principle of "Aynafton" (in Greek eternal sailors) on the other. This epigraphically substantiated principle has been intertwined with Eretrian navigation since the 6th century BC. According to the relevant inscription which was discovered on a modern wall in the area of the present-day port, the Eretrian fleet dominated during the first half of the 6th century BC the northern and southern passage of the Euboean Gulf to the open sea.

In the course of the Ionian revolt against the Persians, Eretria offered its support to the Ionian population by contributing five triremes, something which accounted for the town’s subsequent destruction by the Persians in 480 BC. In the Battle of Artemisium Eretria participated with seven triremes. It further joined the First Athenian Alliance which it later deserted in 411 BC, a time at which the Spartans destroyed the Athenian fleet in the Eretrian port. In the wake of 411 BC the first Euboean league was set up, with Eretria as its capital. Between 377 and 357 BC, Eretria [was brought into ] remained a member of the Second Athenian Alliance, while in the time-period 341-338 BC the Euboean League was reconstituted.

Conflict over the control of Eretria’s strategic position arose among the Macedonian kingdoms during the era of successors, and the town was thus rendered a bone of contention.

Of equal importance in the history of Eretria was the dominance of cynical philosopher Menedemus in the early 3rd century BC, who was later forced into exile (274 BC).

In 198 BC the town was taken and destroyed y Lucius, brother of the Roman hero in the Battle of Pydna Titus Quinctius Flamininus. The latter accorded Eretria a certain degree of independence and set up again the Euboean League with which the town of Eretria allied itself.

Although Eretria did not manage to sustain itself to the same level of prosperity and power, it continued to occupy the same geographical site until the 7th century BC; at that time-period fear for pirate raids drove its inhabitants to move farther inland and seek shelter on the forested slopes of Eretrian Olympus.




Eretria


The studies on the ancient port coincide with the beginning of the topographic study in Eretria. The first scientist who studied the visible port installations and made mention of a closed port was the American archaeologist john Pickard in 1890.

A number of other studies followed, notably those conducted in the early 20th century by county engineer Athanasios GEORGIADIS who linked his name with the port’s study. His research on the chronology of Eretria’s port installations (he pointed out that the western jetty was a project of the 5th century BC) was widely used and constituted the basis for every later text that dealt with the town’s port. As regards the chronology of the port facilities in classical times, as well as the chronology of the waterside alterations that were carried out in the course of the last 5000 years, the studies of Clemens Crause are of equal significance. According to the latter’s estimations, the eastern and coastal wall dates between the late 5th and early 4th century BC.

Yet, the most pivotal study, notwithstanding certain chronological inaccuracies, was conducted by Evangelos KAMBOUROGLOU, who offered a final image of the geological changes that the Eretrian land underwent and provided information on the coastal geomorphology of the area in antiquity.




Eretria


Ινιωτάκης Πολυχρόνη / Iniotakis Polychronis


Eretria


Topography:

Country

Guernsey is one of a group of islands collectively known as the Channel Islands, which lie in the English Channel, 25 miles off the western coast of the Cotentin peninsula of Normandy, and 60 miles from mainland Britain. Guernsey was defined as an island around ten thousand years ago, by rising sea levels after the Pleistocene glaciations. Jersey, now the largest of the Channel Islands, remained attached to the French mainland by a spur of land until some 2000 years later.

Locality

The Roman harbour was situated in what is now the town and parish of St. Peter Port on the east coast of Guernsey. Boats could be beached between the natural reefs in an area near to a freshwater stream. The island's position provided an ideal stopping off point for vessels en route from France and Iberia to Britain. The harbour was (and still is) a natural haven in the dangerous waters around the Channel Islands. Among the natural hazards for sailors there are strong and variable currents, caused by a huge tidal range flowing between the many rocks and islands. The St Peter Port anchorage is sheltered from the prevailing westerly winds and the approach was defined by prominent landmarks and sheltered by other smaller islands opposite the harbour. 

Findspot and co-ordinates

A Gallo-Roman trading vessel  Guernsey 1 was located within St. Peter Port harbour, about 60m south of the modern northern harbour arm known as ‘The White Rock’ (coordinates of the site are 49 27.41' N, 2 31.46' W and UTM 345 784).

Oro-hydrography

The area of the harbour is bounded on the north and south by fresh water streams and a sandy area formed a long strand below a cliff which rose quite steeply behind. Further to the north, areas of marsh land were probably navigable some way inland to small craft. The Channel Islands currently has one of the highest tidal ranges in the British Isles, with tides up to 3 metres giving substantial drying areas at low water but a good depth at high water. There is no reason to suppose that the situation was substantially different in Roman times although there is evidence in the St Malo area at St Servan (Alet) that sea levels were lower in the Early Iron Age period.




Guernsey


Several Roman Wreck sites have been located around Guernsey but local diver, Richard Keen, discovered the trading vessel Guernsey 1 in 1982. It was located between the pier-heads of St Peter Port harbour and suffering badly from the scouring action caused by the overhead passage of harbour traffic. The Guernsey Maritime Trust was formed to rescue the wreck from destruction and excavation work began in 1984, under the direction of Dr. Margaret Rule. The final timbers were raised in 1985 and, together comprise a substantial part of the aft bottom of a Roman cargo ship. The surviving length amounts to about 18 metres with at least 4 metres of the bow missing. Dr Jason Monaghan, a Guernsey based archaeologist co-ordinated much of the post-excavation research on the wreck and its contents, on behalf of the Guernsey Maritime Trust. He also co-authored the excavation report (with Dr Margaret Rule) which was published by Guernsey Museums & Galleries as a monograph. The Guernsey Museum Service now has the archive and artefacts from the ship in it's care.The wreck timbers themselves are now undergoing conservation at The Mary Rose Trust in Portsmouth. The programme will take approximately four years and includes immersion in PEG (polyethyleneglycol) and freeze drying. However, many of the small finds from the wreck site have already been conserved and some are on display in the Maritime Museum at Castle Cornet which is located only a hundred metres from the wreck site. The Guernsey Museum Service is hoping to display the wreck when it is conserved in a new museum telling the story of the development of St Peter Port harbour. The next phase of research on the wreck is underway consisting of:

  • dendrochronology which will help with the dating of the ship and its provenance
  • re-examination of the conserved timbers
  • re-assembly of the conserved timbers
  • scale models of the timbers
  • comparison of other vessels
  • research on a possible reconstruction model which would help to estimate the performance of the ship



Guernsey


There are some structures surviving, which can help to throw light on the ancient harbour. Excavations at La Plaiderie, St. Peter Port, have revealed Roman harbour-side structures, which appear to have been in use throughout the second and third centuries AD. Two buildings interpreted as quayside warehouses stood on the foreshore on the edge of the Roman town. The whole complex would have been close to the water’s edge during its lifetime, most certainly being a large trading establishment on the route between north western Gaul and southern Britain. More recent finds from the Bonded Stores, in the heart of St. Peter Port, suggest that the Romans were established in Guernsey from the first to the fourth centuries AD, and traded goods are ever present – amphorae from France, Italy and Spain, pottery from France, Germany, Spain and Britain. These recent archaeological discoveries confirm the importance of St. Peter Port as a port of call throughout the Roman era. The Gallo-Roman vessel Guernsey I has been dated to the 3rd Century AD on the evidence from coins and pottery.  Dendrochronological sampling will help to confirm the date of the ship and its provenance. Remains of other Roman shipping have also been found, most notably the ‘Little Russel Amphora Wreck A’, which still lies just outside the harbour, and produced material from the late 1st/early 2nd centuries AD.
Several almost-complete amphorae of Beltran type II, together with a number of amphora fragments and other pottery sherds, were recovered from the wreck.




Guernsey


Half a mile north of the present St Peter Port harbour a heavily corroded anchor was found with a late Roman mortarium sherd attached.




Guernsey


Even though we have no tangible evidence for structures on the harbour front in Roman times, it is relatively certain that the area of the inner modern harbour was used then, and possibly even well before Roman times. Boats, before the 10th and 11th Centuries (when they increased in size and complexity), could easily have used the beach to be run aground and unloaded. It is only later, that ships would have needed structures and a stabilised waterfront.

View over the harbour of modern St Peter PortAs a landing place, St. Peter Port harbour possesses the natural advantages such a port would need to accommodate Roman ships. It offers natural shelter from prevailing westerly winds, boats could have been beached, and it provides sailors with a number of easily recognised landmarks. There is, for example, the large rocky islet on which Castle Cornet is now situated, protruding out of the sea, which could easily have been seen when approaching the eastern coast of Guernsey. There would also have been access to fresh water, with a stream running into St. Peter Port harbour in Roman times - and the proximity of a Roman settlement would have meant that there were materials and manpower close by, to service and possibly repair ships and load/unload cargo. The fact that prehistoric and Roman settlement took place so close to the waterfront leads us to assume that St. Peter Port harbour was as relatively busy in prehistoric and Roman times as it is today, even though there are no visible structures surviving from that time.




Guernsey


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Topography

Ancient Gytheion is located on the southern corner of the Peloponnese and the northwestern coast of the Laconian Gulf.




Gytheion


The first evidence of trade in the area date to the Bronze Age, when Lapis Lacaedemonius, which was quarried locally at the nearby cities Krokeai and Psephi, was exported at Crete and Mycenae. Later the natural harbour of Gytheion became the center of the Phoenician trade in purple dye.

During the second half of the 8th century BC, the area around Sparta including Kythera, eastern Peloponnese and the land west of Cape Malea, were ruled by Argos. Sparta that needed a southern outlet to the sea conquered Helos, at the mouth of Eurotas River, and Las. In the beginning of the 6th century BC, the flourishing trade in Laconian pottery, and its increasing needs, suggest an active harbour at Gytheion.

Xenophon reports that the Spartan fleet was based at Gytheion. There is archaeological and historical evidence to support that Gytheion was active during the Peloponnesian War, the Hellenistic and Roman times. There is evidence for the existence of the commercial and military harbour until 374-5AD, when an earthquake destroys it, and a considerable part of the city is covered by the sea.




Gytheion


The Greek archaeologist A. Skias was the first one to locate and publish part of the submerged walls of ancient Gytheion in 1891-2. In 1969, N.C. Flemming of the British National Institute of Oceanography examined the changes at the sea level during the last 2000 years in Greece. In his study he used archaeological evidence to reconstruct the ancient coastline of the Peloponnese. The preliminary research and the first systematic attempt to map the area of Gytheion using sonar and divers took place in 1971 (Skoufopoulos & Edgerton 1972). The next year the survey was continued in an attempt to examine the ancient harbour (Skoufopoulos & McΚernan 1975).




Gytheion


There is disagreement between archaeological and historical evidence, concerning the harbour at Gytheion. Although ancient writers consider it a Spartan military harbour, no positive archaeological evidence has been found as yet. This disagreement is probably caused by the partial survey of the area and the lack of excavation.




Gytheion


Θεοδουλου, Θ. / Theodoulou. Th.




Gytheion


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Topography

The city of Halieis is located in the southern end of the Argolic peninsula, southeast of the Argolic bay, opposite Porto Cheli, at the closed bay that forms a natural harbour. It is 84km southeast of Nauplio, and 7km south of Kranidi.




Halileis


The city of Halieis was founded short after the Persian Wars by Tirynthian refugees, after the submission of their city at Argos. Halieis join the Spartan League, when their city is captured by the Spartan Aneristos with one ship. After the 4th century BC the city declines and according to Pausanias it is abandoned at his time. However, there is some archaeological evidence that there is a small occupation during the Hellenistic and Roman and early Christian Times.




Halileis


The first excavations at the area took place in 1958-9 under the supervision of N. Verdelis, the head of the Department of Antiquities of Argolid and Corinthia. Since 1967, the universities of Indiana and Pennsylvania took responsibility for the archaeological research at Halieis, at Porto Cheli.




Halileis


Although the theory that the above mentioned two towers formed the entrance of a small, shallow, enclosed harbour, is widely accepted, Frank Frost (1985) has challenged it in the First International Workshop of Ancient Mediterranean Harbours at Ceasaria Maritima. According to him, the archaeological evidence does not support the existence of a harbour and the vicinity of the two towers could possibly be the market place.




Halileis


Θεοδουλου, Θ. /Theodoulou, Th.




Halileis


Introduction

The Mediterranean coastal region of Israel has an extended maritime history of about 4000 years. Trading, fishing and shipping activities have left an abundance of wrecked vessels, cargoes, anchorages and port installations that are threatened by marine erosion, treasure hunters and intensive coastal development. Underwater surveys and excavations revealed numerous archeological sites and artifacts that shade light on the history of seafaring, ancient navigation, technology and material culture of the coastal inhabitants. The archeological material is concentrated within a narrow strip of c.180 km long and 200 m wide close to the shoreline.




Israel-Harbors


The Israeli coast is straight and gently graded with the exception of the Haifa Bay, which is open and does not provide shelter. Along the coast there are no islands or bays to provide natural shelter for watercrafts during heavy storms.

In the coastal plain there are several kurkar (sandstone) ridges running parallel to the shore. Some of these ridges are partly submerged forming small islets and discontinuous reefs at 150 to 600 m offshore. Some of these ridges may provide partial protection to anchoring vessels.

Several rivers are running east west across the coastal plain. Most of them are generally dried, except during the winter rainy seasons when they are occasionally flooded by heavy rains and their outlets tend to clog with sea born and alluvial sediments.




Israel-Harbors


Underwater and coastal research carried out during recent decades enabled us to classify the ports and anchorages into five main categories (Galili & Sharvit, 1991):

 

 

 

  1. Man-Made Built Harbors: quays, breakers, jetties, etc. These facilities were constructed most probably by the ruling authorities starting at the Persian period. Three such harbors were found at Akko, Atlit and Caesarea (see map).
  2. Proto - Harbor (3-7 m water depth): Usually the lee side of a kurkar ridge partly submerged at some distance offshore, with some man-made improvements provided a good shelter and mooring. Such anchorages were used since the Middle Bronze Age for night mooring by sea-going vessels or crafts waiting for proper sailing winds. Remains of related features were found at Caesarea, Apollonia, Yavneh Yam and Tel Ridan (see map).
  3. Deep Water Natural Anchorage (4-10 m water depth): Usually the lee side of kurkar ridges partly submerged forming small islands offshore provide a protected anchorage. This type of mooring was used as early as the Middle Bronze period. Its function was similar to Type B. Remains were found at Achziv, Atlit, Neve Yam, Dor, Ma’ agan Michael, Caesarea, Michmoret and Jaffa (see map).
  4. Shallow Water Natural Anchorage (1-4 m water depth): Suchlike anchorages are created by utilizing minor natural features found close to the coastline (bays, abrasion platforms, etc.). Associated features were common along the Israeli coast (see map), and have been used in ancient times by fishermen and lighters unloading cargoes from offshore-anchored large watercrafts. Traditional fishermen currently use such features.
  5. Open Sea Anchorage: submerged kurkar ridge, 200-600 m offshore, with its peak at least 4-12 m beneath the sea level. Feature like this provides an optimal holding ground for ancient stone anchors. Ancient watercrafts especially chose such places for anchorage in areas where no shelters or port facilities were available and the sea bottom was silty or sandy. Anchorages of this type were found in the southern coast of Israel (see map).

Discussion

Some scholars suggested that rivers beyond their outlet served as inland harbors during the Bronze Age (Raban, 1985). There are other researchers who reject this assumption for reasons outlined bellow (Galili, 1986):

  1. Thus far no evidence for the existence of such river-harbor was ever detected.
  2. Hundreds of stone anchors recovered from proto-harbors and anchorages of types C, D and E suggest that these mooring basins were used during the Middle Bronze Age.
  3. Underwater and coastal investigations indicate that in general the coastal riverbeds were shallow and could not serve as inland harbors for substantial watercrafts.
  4. As mentioned previously sandbars obstruct most outlets of the coastal rivers most of the year. Unclogging those obstacles is a complex and expansive task even today and more so in antiquity.

The coast of southern Levant had been a busy sea route at least for the past five four thousand years. The shortage of natural shelters along coast and the strong winter storms were an everlasting problem. Therefore various solutions were demonstrated by ports and anchorage typology enumerated above.




Israel-Harbors


Zaraza Friedman
University of Haifa Israel
Israel

Ehud Galili
Antiquities Authority
Underwater Branch
Israel




Israel-Harbors


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Topography

Kenchreai are located at the northeastern end of the Peloponnese, southeast of Corinth, at the bay of Kenchreai, in the Saronic Gulf.




Kenchreai


According to Pausanias, both the harbours of Corinth, Lechaion and Kenchreai, took their name from Leches and Kenchias, the children of Poseidon and Peirene, the daughter of Acheloos (or Oibalos). The first small settlements in the area from Isthmia and Kenchreai until Corinth appear as early as the Bronze Age. These settlements however, have not been studied, surveyed and excavated systematically as yet. Kenchreai share the history of Corinth. The major harbour of Kenchreai has not been surveyed as it has silted up. After 44/3 BC, a new harbour developed North of the aforementioned natural port, which continued to function. The second harbour has been studied in detail.




Kenchreai


The eastern port of Corinth has been surveyed and excavated by the University of Chicago and Indiana University for the American School of Classical Studies at Athens, in the years from 1963 to 1966 and 1968.




Kenchreai


There is only limited evidence of absolute chronology. Examination of architectural and ceramic evidence suggests that the south and north moles were Roman and were built at the same time.

The study of the literary sources offers only limited evidence regarding the history of Kenchreai, as the city independently from its function as Corinth’s harbour, is only mentioned briefly.




Kenchreai


Θεοδουλου, Θ. /Theodoulou, Th.




Kenchreai


 

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Kition


The French Archeological School of Athens began excavations at the site of Pampoula in 1976.




Kition


Θεοδούλου Θ. / Theodoulou, Th.




Kition


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Kourion


The only underwater survey for the harbour remains was undertaken by J. Leonard (Leonard 1995, 137-138).




Kourion


Of course this hypothesis can only be proved after further detailed investigation. It is quite possible that the harbour was abandoned when Episkopi succeeded Kourion, during the Byzantine Period. Mediaeval travellers often mention the anchorage of the new town on their way to Limassol.




Kourion


Θεοδούλου Θ. / Theodoulou, Th.




Kourion


 

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Kyrenia


The only research that was done at the harbour was a brief survey made by the team of Linder and Raban in 1971 (Raban 1995, 166). It is alas reffered to Nicolaou’s catalogue of Cypriot Harbour.




Kyrenia


In conclusion it may be seen that Kyrenia existed as an unimportant Classical city that as a consequense, was overshadowed by the neighbouring kingdom of Lapethos. By the end of the Classical period Kyrenia began to compete with Lapethos, and by 315 BC the city was under the rule of an independent king. This would confirm Pseudo-Skyllax’s comments, providing that he was referring to the mid 4th century. Under the influence of a new independence new harbour works and reconstruction was undertaken, as the pottery evidence suggests. Similarly, the evidence provided by the Kyrenia wreck, that travelled and eventually sunk at the end of the 4th century, also indicates a new maritime capability most likely provided by the Kyrenia harbour (Katzev 1972). The cargo of the wreck revealed a quantity of almonds, that gave a C14 date of 288 +/- 62, whereas coins were also found of Antigonos Monophthalmos and Demetrius the Besieger. It is most likely that these same installations and harbour facilities, with Roman additions, were the ones referred to by Stadiasmos, noting that Kyrenia was a city with a "ύφορμο" (harbour?).




Kyrenia


Θεοδούλου Θ. / Theodoulou, Th.




Kyrenia





Lapethos


John Myers and Menelaos Markidis made excavations in the area at the beginning of the century. Between 1957-1959 Nicolaou made surveys in the region and found traces on the coast of buildings which he believe to be fishtanks. The publication of these fishtanks also included a report that sections of the ancient harbour were still visible. In 1971 Raban and Linder also undertook surveys in the area.




Lapethos


Θεοδούλου Θ. / Theodoulou, Th.




Lapethos


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Topography

The area of Corinth was already populated from the Prehistoric period. The ancient settlement, much as the modern city, developed on the ‘bridge’ that connects the Peloponnese with continental Greece. The harbour of Lechaeon is situated to the west of the modern village of Old Corinth, and to the south of the old national road Corinth-Patrae. To the east of the harbour lies the well known prehistoric settlement of Korakou (Blegen, 1921). West of the prehistoric settlement, and south of the road, is situated the necropolis of ancient Lechaeon (7th - 4th century BC). The Roman necropolis is further west, and a Mycenaean tomb is reported to the area west of the harbour, next to the sea.

The excavations of Skias revealed two roads that reached from the city to the harbour. The first is the "Lechaeon Road’ that is commented on by Pausanius, (II, 3, 4), and a second road between the main and western wall. The Lechaeon Road reaches roughly the center of the harbour complex to the south. A modern road still follows the same path as the Lechaeon Road. The second road follows the line of the western wall whereby as section of the road intersects the Lechaeon Road just before the harbour, nowadays in the area to the south of the old national road.




Lechaeon


An important factor of the area was the ability to access both the Gulf of Corinth to the west, and the Saronic Gulf and the Aegean to the east. The rapid growth of the area is already noticeable during the Geometric Period when the ports of Kenchraie and Lechaeon are formed, each taking the name of one of the two sons of Poseidon and Perini (Pausanius II, 2). As Strabo indicates, it was due to these two strategic harbours that Corinth played the important historical role in the affairs of the ancient world (Strabo VIII, C378, 20). The variety of technical possibilities that the Corinthians developed in relation to the sea can be witnessed by the discovering of trereme (Thucididies History I.XIII.2), the construction of the "diolcos", and the artificial construction of an internal harbour at the marshy site of Lechaeon. The vitality and importance of Corinth may also be understood through her extensive colonies that spread throughout the Mediterranean, her role as the leader of the Achaean League, and the development that was undertaken during the Roman Period.




Lechaeon


Primarily the American School of Classical Studies and the Hellenic Archaeological Service have undertaken surveys and excavations in the area of ancient Corinth. The site of the harbour of Lechaeon, although a protected archaeological zone, has yet to be surveyed by any official organization. A mapping of the area was undertaken by Georgiadis in 1907, and several archaeological observations were made by Pallas concerning the harbour during the excavations of the Basilica of the Martyr Leonides (Pallas, 1963). A comprehensive bibliographical survey was published in the Enalia (Theodoulou 2002).




Lechaeon


The marsh that existed in the area seems to have been transformed into a closed internal harbour during the Archaic period. During the Roman period a second phase of construction took place, whose remains are visible today. The construction of other features, as well as maintenance construction of the harbour took place throughout the history of the port. From the inscription on the plinth of a statue, for instance, it is clear that during the 4th century AD the Corinthians honoured, "Φλάβιον Ἐρμογένην τὸν λαμπρότατον ἀνθύπατον... τὸν εὐεργέτην καὶ κτίστην τοῦ λιμένος..."(Kent J.H. 1966, 164, pl. 42). This refers to a Roman officer who undertook a series of constructions at the harbour.

Of the two harbours that Corinth had at her disposal, Lechaeon must have been of prime importance since it offered access to the Gulf of Corinth. The distance from the harbour to the city was small (Strabo IV, C380, 21), and offered access to the colonies founded by Corinth to the west, without the interference of Corinth’s rival, Athens, and her navy. This vast harbour complex is unique in Greece, and offers an example of the similar technical achievements displayed at the harbours of Ostia, Caesarea, and Carthage. A survey and research of the installations built during the Archaic period would certainly shed light on the technical and constructive abilities concerning harbour works of this period. The harbour of Lechaeon was utilised until the Frankish occupation when, due to new trade routes that circled the Peloponnese and the more advanced ships that were used, the harbour began to decline. The decline of the port is further indicated by the construction during the Venetian period of a fort to the west of the harbour. This area was known as "karavostasi" (a place where ships stop), and reveals that the vessels of the period, either due to size or the dilapidated state of the harbour, anchored outside the fort, although the use of the harbour by small fishing vessels would have continued unabated.




Lechaeon


Θεοδουλου, Θ. /Theodoulou, Th.




Lechaeon


Topographie
Volksrepublik Lybien
heutiger Ort: Râs el-Hammâm (Homs)
Koordinaten: ca. 12° 35’ N - 30° 25’ E




Leptis-Magna


Von den Ruinen in Leptis Magna sind seit dem 17.Jh. diverse französische (C.Lemaire), später im 19.Jh. auch englische (H.W.Smyth) und deutsche (H.Bath, Roths) Reisebeschreibungen überliefert (hierzu s. P.Romanelli). Archäologische Tätigkeiten, insbesonders im Gebiet des Hafens, wurden verstärkt unter italienischer Leitung durchgeführt 1922-1923, 1949-1953 (tachymetrisches Aufmaß 1952).




Leptis-Magna


Das Hafenbecken wurde dadurch angelegt, in dem die rechte Uferseite im Laufe der Benutzungszeit (vermutlich schon ab der phönizischen Epoche) künstlich nach Osten erweitert wurde. Ursprünglich eine trichterförmige Flussmündung mit davorgelagerten breiten Riffen, begann der Ausbau zum Hafen in der früheren Kaiserzeit und fand seine endgültige Form mit der im wesentlichen wohl severischen Neuregulierung des Stadtplanes. Die leichten Geländeanhöhen im Süden und Osten könnten somit durch den anfallenden Aushub entstanden sein.




Leptis-Magna


Genaue Datierungspunkte liegen nicht vor. Während die Nordseite mit der inschriftlich unter Nero (54-68 n.Chr.) errichteten Porticus vermutlich aus neronischer Zeit stammt (zu anderen neronischen Häfen vgl. Ostia, Anzio), so entspricht die heute noch sichtbare polygonale Ausgestaltung größtenteils vermutlich dem römisch-kaiserzeitlich (d.h.severischen) Ausbau. Hierfür spricht die städtebauliche Konzeption und die Anlage der heute noch sichtbaren Hafenanlage am Ende der Säulenstraße mit dem Leuchtturm auf der Westmole als optischem Endpunkt. Welche Bedeutung dem Leuchtturm zugesprochen wurde, kann man an dem sog. Triumphator-Relief erkennen. In der spätantik-frühbyzantinischen Periode treten in Leptis Magna die Befestigungsmauern als ein zusätzliches Element innerhalb des Hafens hinzu (vgl . Aquileia).




Leptis-Magna


Der Hafen bestand aus vorgelagerten Molen (Wellenbrecher) und von einem ausgebauten Hafenbecken mit verschiedenen Kaimauertypen und den daran anschließenden Nutzbauten. Der Hafen wurde unter Benutzung der vorgelagerten Riffe zu einem geschlossenen Becken ausgestaltet (ca.102.000 qm), dessen vieleckige, von gemauerten Kaimauern umschlossene Form ein wenig an den trajanischen Hafen von Portus (Ostia) erinnert.




Leptis-Magna


Südseite: Nach ca. 80 m von Westen nach Osten werden aus den acht Stufen für weitere 44 m zwölf Stufen und bilden somit eine festlich anmutende Freitreppe. Im Anschluß führt eine 20 stufige Freitreppe zu einer Plattform ca. 4.80 m üNN, auf welcher der Tempel des Jupiter Dolichenus stand. Architekturfragmente und Inschriften weisen auf eine Existenz schon vor dem sev. Umbau hin. Dies erklärt teilweise die unterschiedliche Ausrichtung der Kaianlagen und der anschließenden Gebäude.
Nördlich der Ladenzeile auf der Ostseite steht ca. 13.50 m ein Podiumstempel in antis mit vorgelagertem Altar in hellenistisch-dorischer Bauordnung.




Leptis-Magna


Marcus Heinrich Hermanns


Leptis-Magna


Topographie
Bundesrepublick Deutschland, Land  Rheinland-Pfalz, Stadt Mainz
Koordinaten: ca. 50° 00' N - 08° 15' E




Mainz


Diverse Funde bei städtebaulichen Unternehmungen (1962 Schlosserstraße, 1970 "am Brand", 1982 "am Kappelhof")

(keyword shipyard)
1962 wurde aus dem Gebiet der Schlossertraße ein Befund gemeldet, in dem von "Hölzern in der Art eines Knüppeldammes" die Rede ist. Noch im Mittelalter wurde dieses heute abseits des jetzigen Uferlinie gelegene Areal als Hafen oder Werft genutzt. Eine dendrochronologische Datierung dieser vermutlich als Slipway genutzten Hölzer (vgl. den antiken Befund in Marseille) liegt nicht vor.




Mainz


Marcus Heinrich Hermanns


Mainz





Marion


Excavations of the area have been undertaken by the Swedish Cyprus Expedition (Gerstad 1937, 287-288), the Department of Antiquities of Cyprus (Nικολάου 1964,131-187), and since 1983 the Princeton Cyprus Expedition (Childs 1988, 121-130, Childs 1999, 223-237). E. Linder and A. Raban carried out the only investigation of the remains of the harbour in 1971 (Raban 1995, 165).




Marion


The remains of the ancient harbour can be detected 3km west of the settlement, at Lachi, which is the modern fishing shelter.




Marion


Several questions are raised from the comparison of the results of the investigation and the references to ancient written sources. Firstly, it is not known whether Pseudo-Skyllax’s information is of the mid forth century BC, or rewritten from earlier writers. However, the kingdom’s wealthy presence during the Classical Period, along with its port facilities, is a fact that could not have been easily overlooked. Furthermore, according to the researcher, the harbour at Latsi was abandoned early in the Hellenistic period, when the "Dovetail" clamps resemble those used in the Amathous harbour, thus enabling the dating of the Amathous harbour to the early Hellenistic period.




Marion


Several proposals could be undertaken such as the inclusion of the port in the "Amathus Project" or "Paphos Project", or perhaps to search somewhere else on the Marion coast for the Classical port. These proposals could answer basic questions concerning the marine oriented Kingdoms, however nothing can be sure without further investigation. It is certain, however, that Marion – Arsinoe had a port or harbour until the end of Ancient Times witnessed by Stadiasmos. From then on, although the town existed, there is no reference to its harbour.




Marion


Topographie

Republik Frankreich, Departement Bouches-du-Rhone
heutiger Ort: Marseille.
Koordinaten: ca. 43° 15’ N - 05° 15’ E




Marseille


Die griechische Kolonie, später unter römischer Herrschaft Massilia genannt, wurde um 600 v.Chr. östlich des Rhone-Deltas, an der durch einen kleinen gebirgigen Vorsprung geschützen Bucht (Lacydon) gegründet. Diese weist eine langgezogene, nord-südlich orientierte Form auf mit einem hinteren westlich abbiegenden Ende (das sog. corne du port). Es handelte sich somit um einen Küstenhafen (keyword sea port) mit sehr günstig ausgesuchter Lage an den Handelsrouten entlang der Südküste Frankreichs (Kontakte mit Iberern, Etruskern und Phöniziern), sowie nach Mitteleuropa über die Rhone entlang der "Zinnstraße" (Kontakte mit den Kelten und Angel-Sachsen).




Marseille


Die zeitlich unterschiedlichen Hafenanlagen traten durch diverse städtebauliche Eingriffe innerhalb der heutigen Großstadt zu Tage: Grabungen La Bourse, Place Jules Verne, Place Villeneuve-Bargemon. über dem römischen Lagerhaus mit den in situ belassenen Dolia befindet sich heute das Musée du docks romains.




Marseille


Keramikfunde in den Schichten, welche an die Befunde anstoßen (hauptsächlich Verlandungsschichten, Sedimentierungen)




Marseille


Bekannt sind Hafenanlagen aus archaischer, klassischer und hellenistischer Zeit.




Marseille


Marcus Heinrich Hermanns


Marseille


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Topography

Methoni lies on the southwestern end of the Peloponnese, on the peninsula of Messenia, and an embayment of the Ionian Sea. The human presence at the area dates to the Middle Bronze Age (around 1700BC). There is archaeological evidence supporting the city’s existence from the Prehistoric Ages to the present. The Messenian Methoni will develop to a famous port during the Classical, the Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages. Methoni takes part at the Peloponnesian War, during the Hellenistic times joins the Achaean League, and the Romans grant her autonomy. Later, Byzantium grants Venice free trade at Methoni. From the 12th century AD, Methoni comes under Venetian rule and until 1828, is conquered twice by the Turks and twice by the Venetians. In 1828, Methoni is freed and shares the history of the rest modern Greek cities.




Methoni


Methoni’s harbour has not been systematically surveyed. In 1969, N.C. Flemming published his study ‘Archaeological Evidence for Eustatic Change of Sea-level and earth movements’. In the abovementioned study, he examined the ways that archaeological evidence can be used to calculate sea level changes and reconstruct ancient coastlines, drawing examples from the wider area of the Peloponnese. Few years later, J.C. Kraft and S.E. Aschenbrenner examined the harbour of Methoni in an attempt to reconstruct Methoni’s ancient coastline. N. Lianos (1987, 129-135) studied the harbour constructions of the Castle in relation to sea fortifications, such as Bourtzi and the Southern Gate. Finally, the Ephorate of Underwater Antiquities undertook survey at Methoni.




Methoni


The dating of the ancient mole has troubled archaeologists. According to Kraft & Aschenbrenner (1977, 30) most researchers agree that both the archaeological and historical evidence suggest a Roman date for the construction of the mole, somewhere between the 2nd and the 3rd centuries AD.

Despite the fact that this is an area of significant archaeological interest, research so far has had limited success, since archaeology has not been able to provide a stratigraphic sequence for successive periods and there is a lack of historical evidence in sequence for the most recent periods (Kraft & Aschenbrenner 1977, 24). Long term occupation of the area and continuous structural alterations have disturbed the archaeological record. This, in conjunction with limited research, has led to the partiality of the evidence.




Methoni


Αργύρη Ξανθή / Argyri Xanthi


Methoni


Republik Italien, Region Kampanien, Provinz Neapel
heutige Orte: Miseno, Baia, Pozzuoli und nördliche Vorstädte von Neapel
Koordinaten: ca. 40° 55’ N – 14° 05’ E




Miseno-Puteoli


Der Küstenstreifen der Phlegräischen Felder umfaßt den gesamten Golf von Pozzuoli nördlich von Neapel. Die gesamte Küstenstrecke von Cumae bis Neapel hat im Laufe der Jahrhunderte tiefgreifende Veränderungen durch geologische Ursachen erfahren. Neben dem Vulkanismus ist dies der Bradysismus, die langsame Bodenbewegung. Letzterer hat intensiv gewirkt und das Versinken und die überflutung eines breiten Geländestreifens zwischen Pozzuoli und Miseno vor allem in der Bucht von Baia geführt ( ca. 2 cm jährlich, insgesamt bis ca 8 m in der Bucht von Baia). Für den Vulkanismus sei hier u.a. die Entstehung des 140 m hohen Monte Nuovo zu nennen, der 1538 an der Stelle des antiken Lukriner Sees entstand und somit die Küste gänzlich neu gestaltete.


Eine gebirgige Halbinsel bildet den nördwestlichen Abschluß der Bucht von Neapel, südlich der Bucht von Formia und Gaeta. Die weitgezogene Sichel des Golf von Pozzuoli bildet verschiedene kleinere Buchten , das Hinterland wird durch Berge vulkanischen Ursprungs abgegrenzt. Wegen der schwefelhaltigen Umgebung, der heißen Quellen und anderer vulkanischer Phänomene wurde die Region auch campi phlegraei genannt. Bekannt war der langgestreckte, in diverse kleine Buchten untergliederte Golf zur römischen Zeit als mondäner Aufenthaltsort, archäologisch durch die Villenlandschaft wie Unterhaltungsinfrastruktur (Thermen,...) bestätigt ebenso wie literarisch überliefert. Heute ist dies eine eher triste Landschaft mit Vorstadtcharakter. Hinzu kommt die seit dem Mittelalter betriebene Schiffsausbesserung im Golf von Pozzuoli, deren Auswirkung in der Neuzeit zum modernen Schiffsfriedhof im (unterwasser-)archäologischen Park von Baia geführt hat.


Auf diesen Küstenabschnitt beziehen sich verschiedene Landschaftsdarstellungen in der Wandmalerei des zweiten pompejanischen Stils (vgl. Vitruv VII 5,2: ...pinguntur enim portus...) aus Stabia, aus Pompeji und aus einer Villa vom Esquilin in Rom sowie die berühmte Serie von Glasgefäßen aus dem 3. bis 4. Jh.n.Chr., welche mit Souvenircharakter panoramaartig diverse örtlichkeiten dieser in der Antike mondänen Gegend wiedergeben (Pozzuoli, Baia, Miseno). Die Gläser wurden in Ampurias, Köln, Odemira, Ostia und Populonia gefunden und befinden sich jetzt in verschiedenen Museen der Welt. Das zahlreiche Auftauchen spricht für einen besonderen Bekanntheitsgrad.


Hier zu besprechende Hafenanlagen: Militärhäfen von Misenum und "Portus Iulius" / Zivilhäfen von Pozzuoli (Puteoli) und Isola di Nisida




Miseno-Puteoli


Zur Versorgung eines großen Flottenverbandes gehört auch die Bereitstellung von Trinkwasser. Hierzu dienten die im Umfeld von Miseno angelegten großen Wasserreservoirs wie die sog. Piscina Mirabilis (Endpunkt des Serino-Aquädukts), die sog. Cento Camerelle" sowie die Grotta Dragonara.




Miseno-Puteoli


Marcus Heinrich Hermanns


Miseno-Puteoli


Topographie  

Republik Italien, Region Sizilien, Provinz Trapani
Koordinaten:  ca. 12° 15’ N - 36° 50’ E

Insel San Pantaleo, vor der Westküste Siziliens. Privatbesitz der Stiftung Whitacker (Palermo, Italien)




Mozia


 width= Die flache Insel San Pantaleo (ca. 45 ha) liegt ca. 1 km vor der Westküste in einer weiten Bucht als Bestandteil des kleinen Archipels der Isole delle Stagnone ca. 8 km nördlich von Marsala (Kap Boeo), dem antiken Lilybäum und ca. 10 km südlich von Trapani. Zum offenen Meer durch die längliche Isola Grande geschützt bildet sich hinter dieser eine kleine, seichte lagunenartige Bucht (Stagnone di Marsala) in der die Inseln San Pantaleo, Santa Maria und La Scuola liegen. Die Insel San Pantaleo ist nach der Isola Grande die zweitgrößte, der zu besprechende Hafen liegt an der Südwestseite der Insel westlich des Südtores des Befestigungsmauerringes, der sich rund um diesselbe erstreckt.




Mozia


Eine geomorphologische und /oder geophysische Untersuchung der Bucht steht noch aus, somit auch die Erkenntnis über die Zugänglichkeit der Insel von See. Die Bucht besitzt heute zwei Ausgänge, je einem in Norden zwischen der nördlichen Spitze der Isola Grande (Punta di Tramontana) und der Torre di San Teodoro, sowie einen im Süden an der südlichen Spitze der Insel (Punta dello Stagnone) und der Punta di Palermo /Punta d’Alga. Sowohl die Isola Grande wie auch die Isola Santa Maria erscheinen auf topograhischen Karten des 18.Jhs. (Baron Samuel von Schmettau 1719-21) und 19.Jhs. (Officio topografico di Palermo 1810, Officio topografico di Napoli 1818, William H.Smyth 1824, Julius Schubring 1866) verschiedentlich aufgeteilt. Ebenso auf nautischen Karten (F.Arancio 1845). Erst später werden diese Inseln als von einzelnen anthropomorph eingezogenen Salinenbauten verbunden dargestellt. Der antike Schriftsteller Diodorus (XIV 50) schildert den Angriff der Syrakusaner auf Mozia, bei dem die Hafeneinfahrt von feindlichen Schiffen versperrt wurde. Die Maßnahme, welche daraufhin die Verteidiger ergriffen um der Blockade zu entkommen, nämlich die Schiffe über Land ans offene Meer zu ziehen (vermutlich über die Isola Grande), läßt vermuten, daß die Bucht in der Antike nur einen Zugang von Süden her besaß und somit wie durch eine Halbinsel geschützt war.




Mozia


Älteste phönizische Kolonie auf Sizilien. Der Küstenhafen besaß eine Mittlerposition zwischen der West-Ost-Verbindung (Südspanien-Levante), sowie an der Nord-Süd-Richtung (Karthago-Sardinien). Einschneidendes Ereignis war die Zerstörung 398 v.Chr. durch Dionys von Syrakus. Danach gab es nur noch eine spärliche Bebauung.




Mozia


Das bis in die frühe Neuzeit als Saline (daher die Flurbezeichnung "salinella") genutzte Becken wurde 1906-07 schon unter der Leitung von J.Whitacker freigelegt (NSc 1915, 439f.). F elduntersuchungen mit archäologischen Fragestellungen fanden zwischen 1968 und 1971 statt (englisch-amerikanische Zusammenarbeit). Forschungsschwerpunkt waren Erkenntnisse zur Funktion, Datierung und Bauabfolge dieses Bauwerks.




Mozia


Vermutet werden insgesamt drei Hafenanlagen:




Mozia


- künstliches Becken in der Nähe des Südtores der Stadtmauer (51 x 35) aus  regelmäßig behauenen Steinblöcken auf geglättetem Felsboden. Ein ebenso künstlicher Kanal verband es mit dem Meer. Ein künstlich angelegtes Hafenbecken wurden in der Antike "Kothon" genannt (Servius, Kommentar zur Aeneis I 427: "Cothona sunt portus in mari non naturales sed arte et manu facti", s. Karthago).






- ein durch Molen gesichertes Becken im Norden der Insel

- Ein weiterer Hafen wird im östlichen Bereich der Insel vermutet. Hier befindet sich eine im Gelände auffällige Senke (noch nicht untersucht).




Mozia


Die Interpretation der Keramikfunde aus stratigraphisch angelegten Grabungen an den Kaimauern weisen auf eine Erbauuung im späten 6.Jh. oder im frühen 5.Jh. hin (obere Schichten). Keramikfunde aus dem ca. 40cm mächtigen Schlick im ursprünglichen Kanal weisen in das späte 5.Jh. und frühe 4.Jh. (alles vor 397v, dem   width= überlieferten Datum der Zerstörung Mozias -Diodor XIV 50- ). Zu dieser Zeit scheint diese Anlage nicht mehr in Betrieb gewesen zu sein, wurde doch der Kanal durch eine Mauer in der Flucht der Beckenbegrenzungsmauer verschlossen. Diese wurde unfundamentiert auf den Schlick aufgesetzt, welcher den ehemaligen sich bis weit in das Becken erstreckenden in den Felsen gehauenen Kanal füllte. Zwei aufrecht im Bereich des mittleren Kanals eingebrachte Steinsäulen trugen vermutlich seinerzeits eine Stegkonstruktion und ermöglichten somit den Übergang hinter der Befestigungsmauer. Ebenso lassen sich in der Mauerart zwei Bauphasen erkennen. Der jüngeren von beiden entsprechen die obengenannten Arbeiten. Das Mauerwerk ist hier überwiegend im Läuferverband verlegt.
Obwohl die chronologische Abfolge der Gebäude und ihre Zusammengehörigkeit (insbesonders das Verhältnis zur Stadtmauer) fraglich ist, scheint doch, daß die Anlage ca. zweite Hälfte - Ende des 6.Jhs. angelegt wurde. In einer ersten Phase war das Becken durch einen Kanal mit dem Meer verbunden (Mauerwerk im Binderverband). In einer weiteren Phase wurde das Becken vom Kanal durch eine Mauer getrennt (Schlickfunde 2.H.5.Jh.). Der Kanal wurde in der jetzigen Form ausgebaut.




Mozia


Der sogennante Kothon von Mozia war vermutlich eine Werft bzw. ein Trockendock (vgl. Thurioi -Sybaris-). Hierfür spräche der Sockel längst der Beckenwand, wo eventuell die Stützen darauf ruhten, um die Schiffe aufrecht zu halten. Jedoch weist auch die Kaiwand des Hafenbeckens in Karthago im unteren Bereich einen profilierten Sockel auf. In Zusammenhang mit den umliegenden kommerziell und handwerklich geprägten Vierteln wird dieses Bauwerk daher aber weiterhin häufig noch als Hafenbecken interpretiert (zu gemauerten, künstlichen Hafenbecken vgl. Karthago ). Wie dieses Bauwerk auch interpretiert werden mag, die beengten Maße ließen nur Schiffe mit max. Länge 19 m und max. B. von 4.50 m sowie einem geringen Tiefgang (2,30 m Tiefe insgesamt im Becken, 1,75 m im Kanal) in geringer Anzahl zu. So müßte im Falle eines Hafens von einer Umladetätigkeit auf kleinere und wendige Lastkähne auf Reede ausgegangen werden, welche den engen Durchgang durch den Kanal schneller und leichter bewältigen konnten. Eine weitere Interpretation -vorausgesetzt werden hier Vorrichtungen wie Schieberventile und dergleichen- ist die eines heiligen Sees mit rituell-religiöser Funktion. Fische und Wasser spielten in den syro-phönizischen Kulten eine besondere Rolle. Ebenso die rituelle Waschung eines Kultbildes. Nur gezielte, weitere Grabungen im näheren Umfeld dieses Bauwerkes könnten hier vermutlich eine Lösung erbringen, steht doch dieses Bauwerk bisher auch in der Urbanistik Mozias ziemlich isoliert.




Mozia


Marcus Heinrich Hermanns


Mozia





Ostia-Claudio


Lo scalo fluviale di Ostia e il porto di Pozzuoli erano stati i due poli del sistema portuale della città di Roma per tutta l’età repubblicana. Mentre il secondo era troppo lontano e difficilmente raggiungibile, Ostia era inadatta e insufficiente alla gestione di un largo traffico di merci, perché attrezzata con una sola banchina. Le imbarcazioni di grande tonnellaggio erano costrette a trasbordare le loro merci su natanti più piccoli, che venivano tirati da coppie di buoi fino a Roma (sistema dell’alaggio).




Ostia-Claudio



Il porto di Claudio non è mai stato scavato sistematicamente e la storia delle ricerche di quest’area non può essere separata da quella che ha interessato il porto di Traiano.

Nel rendiconto della visita del Papa Pio II nel 1461 figura la più antica descrizione del sito. Vengono, infatti, menzionate le rovine del faro che si sarebbero trovate non lontane dal mare a causa dell’ancor limitato avanzamento della spiaggia. La stessa situazione venne rilevata da A. Danti nel 1582 in un famoso affresco nella Galleria delle Carte Geografiche del Museo Vaticano.
È infatti a partire dall’epoca rinascimentale che si susseguono una serie di carte e di ricostruzioni ad opera di famosi cartografi ed architetti (Mannucci 1987). Esse rappresentano importanti documenti per la conoscenza del sito.

Nel 1907, Carcopino eseguì una serie di saggi nel porto di Claudio ma essi furono troppo limitati per risolverne i problemi topografici.
Nuovi dati sulla topografia del porto di Claudio sono venuti dagli scavi del 1957, in occasione della costruzione dell’aeroporto « Leonardo da Vinci » di Fiumicino (Lugli 1961; Scrinari 1960, 1971, 1979; Testaguzza 1970). In base a questi lavori, venne proposta una ricostruzione del bacino portuale con un solo ingresso situato a nord.
Castagnoli (1963) e Giuliani (1992), a partire dall’interpretazione delle fotografie aeree e dalla riconsiderazione della cartografia rinascimentale, hanno infine proposto una nuova ricostruzione, oggi generalmente accettata, che vede un ingresso principale a ovest e uno secondario a sud.


Ostia-Claudio





Ostia-Claudio



Una grande cisterna, lunga 36 metri e larga 26, si conserva al di sotto dei Bagni di Nettuno sul lato settentrionale del Decumano, a metà strada tra Porta Romana e il Foro. Quando i bagni furono costruiti sotto Adriano questa cisterna non venne più utilizzata. Sebbene sia stata chiamata repubblicana essa data all’inizio dell’Impero. Non c’è traccia di altre cisterne simili a Ostia e questa grande riserva d’acqua doveva risolvere un problema specifico. Una tubatura in piombo corre dall’angolo nord-ovest in direzione nord-est  verso il fiume. Gismondi ha suggerito che la cisterna venne costruita per rifornire di acqua potabile le navi che erano ormeggiate lungo la sponda del Tevere.


Ostia-Fluviale


Giulia Boetto


Ostia-Fluviale





Ostia-Traiano


Oggigiorno, il porto di Traiano può essere raggiunto dalla capitale attraverso l’autostrada Roma-Fiumicino e la via Portuense, da Ostia e Fiumicino attraverso la via dell’Aeroporto.
In epoca antica, il porto di Traiano, costruito quale bacino interno rispetto al porto di Claudio, utilizzava quest’ultimo quale riparo in rada. Un canale navigabile, tenuto sgombro dai depositi portuali, collegava l’ingresso al bacino traianeo.



Ostia-Traiano



Il fallimento dell’impianto portuale di Claudio impose sotto il regno di Traiano, quindi dopo neppure cinquant’anni, una nuova progettazione dell’intero sistema così da renderlo consono alle esigenze sempre più pressanti di Roma e all’importanza raggiunta dai traffici marittimi internazionali.
Vennero considerate tutte le componenti negative caratteristiche dell’area, ossia l’incidenza delle correnti litoranee, i regimi del Tevere e la connotazione del suo delta, la natura alluvionale del terreno. Si decise quindi di costruire un bacino interno rispetto al porto di Claudio e collegato a quest’ultimo da un percorso articolato in modo da tenerlo sgombro dai depositi.
Al vecchio bacino venne sicuramente lasciata la funzione di rada, potendosi in parte contenere i suoi problemi di insabbiamento con dragaggi periodici. Oltre al faro, che era divenuto ormai il simbolo stesso di Ostia-Porto, non si è in grado di individuare altre parti dell’impianto precedente reimpiegate nel nuovo assetto, anche a causa dei molti restauri resi necessari nel corso del tempo.
Per scongiurare l’impaludamento in caso d’alluvione e insieme per alleggerire il Tevere, al tempo di Claudio erano stati praticati due o più canali (fossae) con andamento dall’ansa del fiume a mare : non si può escludere, come suggerito da Testaguzza (1970) e Verduchi (1999) che nella ristrutturazione traianea almeno due di essi venissero riutilizzati diversamente, uno trasformato nell’attuale darsena e l’altro nel canale di collegamento con il Tevere, la Fossa Traiana (odierno canale di Fiumicino), per agevolare la risalita delle navi verso Roma.
Il nuovo complesso venne inaugurato nel 112, dopo almeno dodici anni di lavori, certamente non completato ma definito nelle linee principali. Il fulcro era rappresentato dal bacino esagonale interno, scavato per intero nella terraferma a breve distanza dal fiume.
Al di là dell’indiscutibile grandiosità e dell’elevato valore ingegneristico del complesso di Traiano, un dato di particolare interesse è costituito dalla razionalità dell’organizzazione dei percorsi, sia di quelli per via d’acqua, sia di quelli all’interno degli edifici di stoccaggio. Le navi da carico (onerariae) attraccavano alle banchine sui due lati del canale d’ingresso o a quelle del bacino interno, e le merci venivano immediatamente smistate ai magazzini, da cui ripartivano alla volta di Roma, dopo permanenze di varia durata legate al tipo e alla deperibilità del prodotto, su battelli di stazza minore (caudicariae), più adatti a risalire la Fossa Traiana e quindi il Tevere.
E’ ormai accertato che il progetto traianeo comprendeva il molo traverso con un piccolo faro terminale, il canale d’ingresso al porto interno con le banchine adeguatamente attrezzate, la cosiddetta darsena, il bacino esagonale, il canale di collegamento con la Fossa Traiana e con ogni evidenza la maggior parte delle infrastrutture di SE e SO.
A partire dal 314, anno del Concilio di Arles, la città portuale fu resa autonoma da Ostia e diventò, per decreto di Costantino, a tutti gli effetti "Portus Romae".
In questo periodo venne posta la massima cura nel mantenere l’efficienza e garantire la sicurezza dell’impianto, che rappresentava la sopravvivenza stessa della capitale: per questa ragione venne costruito il primo circuito di mura difensive che dapprima comprese tutta l’area ma che progressivamente, di pari passo con l’incremento delle scorrerie barbariche e la conseguente necessità di trasferire immediatamente le merci a Roma senza soste nei magazzini, si ridusse al solo settore sud-orientale, costituendo il "castello di Porto" legato alle vicende delle guerre gotiche (VI secolo).
Infatti è accertato che dal V secolo tutte le operazioni portuali venivano svolte sugli unici due lati dell’esagono (quelli meridionali) che si erano potuti mantenere in efficienza. Le modifiche nella morfologia del territorio, l’avanzamento della costa e la mancanza di manutenzione conseguente al tracollo economico e politico di Roma portarono abbastanza rapidamente all’impaludamento dell’area e alla ricolmata quasi completa del bacino esagonale, che in epoca medioevale fu parzialmente adibito dalla diocesi di Porto all’allevamento dei pesci per osservare il precetto del venerdì.


Ostia-Traiano


Il porto di Traiano e il circostante insediamento di Portus non sono stati mai scavati sistematicamente. D’altra parte, la loro grandezza e l’importanza dei resti affioranti hanno costituito un forte motivo di attrazione per un gran numero di studiosi, almeno a partire dal XV secolo.

 

La più antica descrizione del sito riguarda la visita del Papa Pio II nel 1461 ; la prima pianta è quella di Giuliano da Sangallo eseguita tra il 1485 e il 1514 mentre la più antica ricostruzione è dovuta a Pirro Ligorio (1554). In seguito, le rovine furono sfruttate per il materiale da costruzione o per il recupero di opere d’arte.

Gli scavi del tardo XVIII e XIX secolo non ci hanno lasciato una documentazione completa. Tutto ciò che sappiamo lo dobbiamo al Fea e alla sua pubblicazione del 1824, mentre il Nibbi, nel 1837, incluse nella sua storia e descrizione delle rovine delle informazioni importanti su ciò che era venuto in luce fino ai sui tempi. Le ricerche di Lanciani, nel 1867, segnarono un gran passo avanti nella conoscenza della storia e della topografia del sito. Il suo resoconto, pubblicato nel 1868 insieme ad una pianta dettagliata del porto di Traiano, per lungo tempo è rimasto la fonte di referenza.
Nel 1856, la famiglia Torlonia acquisì il territorio e il sito di Portus. Durante i lavori agricoli allora promossi con il fine di bonificare l’area, furono messi in luce una parte degli edifici senza che nessun resoconto venisse pubblicato.
Quando il bacino del porto di Traiano, che  nel frattempo si era trasformato in una palude, fu pulito e restaurato nella sua forma originale nel 1923, il Calza riuscì a studiare la struttura del molo prima che il bacino fosse nuovamente riempito.
Nel 1935 Lugli raccolse in un volume le notizie disponibili sulla storia del sito e descrisse le rovine.
Il passaggio di parte della proprietà Torlonia allo stato ha permesso la costituzione dell’Area Archeologica di Portus e moltiplicato le attività della Soprintendenza archeologica di Ostia al suo interno.


Ostia-Traiano





Ostia-Traiano


Giulia Boetto


Ostia-Traiano


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Paphos


An amateur diving team of the British Army between 1959 and 1961 first surveyed the ruins of the ancient harbour of Paphos. Unfortunately the results of the survey were never published. A second survey was undertaken by the Polish professor Daszewski in 1965, however detailed plans and photographs of the site were never published (Daszewski 1981, 327-336). Even so, the survey provided valuable information of the ancient facilities before the construction of the modern harbour at the same site buried and destroyed most of it. Finally, the American University of Colorado, directed by Hohlfelder and Leonard, undertook underwater surveys of the site between 1991 and 1992. In 1996 the same programme made a geological survey of the harbour area with enlightening results (Leonard 1998, 141-157).




Paphos


These two breakwaters were most likely constructed during the Hellenistic period, whereas the additions, such as the extension of the western breakwater, and the second mole to the south of the eastern breakwater, may be Roman works most probably constructed after the earthquakes of 15 and 77 AD.




Paphos


The history of the harbour of Paphos may be summarised as follows: The site contains a natural anchorage however it is uncertain as to when it first began to be used. The area, however, certainly had a Classical settlement, as Mlynarczyk has proven. It is probable that this settlement utilised the anchorage and a natural basin slightly to the south of the Hellenistic harbour, at the site where Nicolaou in1966 and Raban in1971 noted a marsh area. At the end of the 4th century the old capital was transferred to this site and the two breakwaters enclosed the harbour. It is possible that the breakwaters did not extent to the length that we see today if the funds available came only from the kingdom. However, the harbour was extended and completed with the funds provided either by Ptolemy or Demetrius who vied for control of Cyprus. The conditions that were formed due to the constructions had a detrimental effect on the harbour. An interrupted sea current deposited large quantities of silt, as did the stream that fed into the harbour basin, and the silting of the harbour was intensified after the earthquakes of the 1st century BC. As the provincial capital during the Roman Period, the harbour of Paphos underwent renewed construction to combat the problem of silting. The earthquakes of the 3rd century, and the geopolitical change of Roman Empire into the Byzantine Empire had as a result the overal neglegt of the harbour and its facilities. The harbour was still in use during the Arab raids of the 7th-10th centuries AD. The continued neglect of the harbour eventually led to the complete silting and dereliction of the port. Construction during the 20th century resulted in the demolition and covering of large sections of the ancient harbour. Similarly, the modern changes to the morphology of the coast, and the pace of constructions in and around the harbour area have as a result hindered the possibility of further analytical surveys. The task of the surveyors now is to undertake underwater excavations of the harbour area to discover the exact morphology of the ancient port, and to date the various phases of construction that were undertaken.




Paphos


Θεοδούλου Θ. / Theodoulou, Th.




Paphos


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Piraeus


Piraeus is situated in the northern part of the west coastline of Attica peninsula, surrounded by the Saronic gulf. Written evidence by ancient geographers and historians such as Srabo, Suidas and Arpokration, confirm the region’s geological history, according to which, Pireaus was an island before the tetartogeni geological period. During that period, the alluvial sedimentation of Kifisos river and of other Attica’s torrents led to the formation of the seashore that unified Piraeus with the mainland of Attica and to the creation of Halipedon (a marshy area that covered a great part of the region and resulted in its inaccessibility).

During the classical period, the geomorphology of Attica’s coastlines, 24 miles long, was suitable for the docking of ships of that day at many points along the coastline, resulting in the operation of several small ports.

The selection of Piraeus for the development of Athens’ main port was made in ancient times, as it happened in modern years (1834), mainly due to the protection that is provided by its location and the geomorphology of its three natural ports as well as its proximity to Athens.

Cantharus, the main harbor of Piraeus, is situated in the western part of the peninsula and it is a totally protected and secure natural harbour. The other two ports of Zea and Munychia are situated in the eastern part of the Peiraïke peninsula and on either side of Munychia hill. Further to the east, the gulf of Phaleron played the role of the main port of the Athenians before the establishment of Piraeus.




Piraeus


The only area of Piraeus from which there is evidence of inhabitance since the early prehistory of Attica (the first finds are neolithic potsherds), is the temple of Artemis Munychia, on the western part of Munychia harbour. (Steinhauer G.A. 2000, p.10-13).

Inhabitance of Piraeus was mainly initiated in 479B.C. with the instigation of the Athenian Deme by Themistocles to fortify and develop the most significant port of Athens. He was the first to turn the Athenian’s attention to the sea when he became Archon in 493/92B.C. and the one who pointed out the ideal location of Piraeus, navigated a powerful commercial and military fleet and, in a very small period of time, fortified the town and its natural ports. Fortification works for the direct and secure connection of the harbor with Athens were carried on by Kimon who wanted to complete Themistocles’ plan and constructed the two Long Walls, the Phaliron Wall and the Northern Wall (fig.5), and later (445B.C.) by Pericles who constructed the Southern (or middle) wall, between Phaliron and the Northern Wall.

Pericles was the one who assigned the design of a plan for the city of Piraeus to the famous architect of that period, Hippodamus from Militos. With the harbour installations already planned and constructed earlier, the town planning took place on a totally unbuilt but well protected area that was destined to become the mercantile marine center of Mediterranean as well as the naval headquarters of Athens. It was designed in direct connection to "asti" and with generative elements of its structure, the geomorphology of its three natural ports, and the diagonal tracing of the Long Walls, which materialized in the attican lanscape the two pole formation of "City-Port" during the thriving period of the Athenian Democracy.

During the 3rd century BC, the Macedonian garrison was established at Munychia and Piraeus became one of the most powerful forts that supported Macedonian conquers of Greece.

During the Macedonian occupation of Piraeus, only the dockyards were in use, while the city is driven to decline. After the harbor’s liberation in 229B.C., the connection between the city and its harbor was never again restored, until the modern times.

Prior to Roman times, the harbor was used for a while, cut off from Athens, while in the early Roman times it was destroyed by Syllas in 86B.C. after a long term seize. The complete demolition of the fortifications and the marine installations of the harbor resulted in the lack of safety for seafarers and merchants and lead to the final devastation of the port.

From the remnants of the fortifications, marine installations and buildings, very few have been preserved to this day. It is also known (Angelopoulos H. 1898, p. 43) that for a number of years Piraeus was the commercial center for lime, which was produced in furnaces using architectural parts from the destroyed harbour.

A great part of the ancient harbor installations as well as the post-Roman docks that were still visible under the surface of the water during the early 19th century had already been covered since the end of ancient era due to the rise of sea level.

The planning of the modern city and the harbour of Piraeus was done by Kleanthis and Schaubert after the proclamation of Athens as the capital of the newly formed Greek state in 1834, using the Hippodamian system of town planning once again. The evolution of Piraeus as the main passenger and mercantile harbour of the country, the installation of major industrial units and the construction of modern marine installations along the contemporary coastline, the bombing of the harbour during W.W. II, and the new uncontrolled erection of the city, led to almost total vanishing the most developed marine and urban center of Classical Greece.




Piraeus


Research on the city-harbor of Piraeus began during the early 19th century by foreign travelers, cartographers (E. Dodwell 1801-1806, W. M. Leake 1821), researchers like E. Curtius (1841), H.N. Ulrichs (1843) and topographers like C. von Strantz (1861), while a systematic recording of the visible ancient relics and a very significant representation of the ancient town was conducted by E. Curtius - A. Kaupert in collaboration with topographer G.V. Alten, which lead to the production of the maps of Attica (fig.3) and the attached text by A. Milchofer.

Most of the evidence that was recorded in the early 19th century, does not exist any more since most of the remnants disappeared during the construction work that was done for the new embankment of the modern Piraeus harbor, under grate time pressure that did not permit the recording of monuments.

Archaeological research in the harbour of Piraeus began during the first period of the rapid construction of the modern city and had the character of rescue excavations, which even today are the main option for research in the densely inhabited city, and the harsh interventions that the ancient harbour has undergone, due to the industrialization of its use.

The excavations that were done by Dragatsis, during the first period of construction for the modern city (1880-1920), revealed in the port’s area a group of Shipsheds, "neosoikoi", Zea’s theatre, the southern portico of the "Emporion" called Serangeion and the residence of the Dionysiasts. The most significant excavation was that of a row of 20 neosoikoi at the eastern part of Zea by Dragatsis. Their recording by Doerpfeld constitutes the main source of our knowledge about the form and dimensions of neosoikoi and about the size of triremes and their launching method. From that group the only part that remains intact today is situated in the basement of a block of flats. (Fig.4)

The results of this period of archaeological research were collected in a volume by W. Judeich, (Topographie von Athen, 1905, 1931).

The most recent discoveries and excavations, that were done by the Service of Antiquities, between 1960 and 1990 regard the Arsenal of Philon in the military port of Zea, the "Makra Stoa" and the Neosoikoi of Munychia, as well as a large number of houses, cisterns and quarries, are collected in V.K v. Eickstedt’s dissertation (Beitrage zur Topographie des antiken Piraeus, 1991).




Piraeus





Piraeus


Zea was the second largest port of Piraeus and was wholly covered by the installations of the dockyard of the attican fleet. Its development most probably preceded the other two ports, since it granted the best natural protection for the mooring of vessels.(fig.11)

The drawing of the port preceded its construction in order to cover the increased need for the immediate building of ships that would form the powerful fleet of the Athenians (493 – 492).




Piraeus


The port of Munychia is the smallest of the three main harbours of Piraeus, protected from NW by the hill of Munychia and was used as naval dockyard.




Piraeus


Βλαχάκη Φωτεινή / Vlachaki Foteini


Piraeus


Topographie

Republik Italien, Region Toskana, Provinz Pisa
heutiger Ort: Pisa
Koordinaten: ca. 43° 35’ N - 10° 20’ E




Pisa


Pisa liegt im nördlichen Abschnitt der toskanischen Küste am Arno, ca. 10 km vom Tyrrhenischem Meer entfernt. Pisa war Knotenpunkt verschiedener Land- und Seewege. Weitere Häfen- bzw. Anlegemöglichkeiten entlang der Küste sind literarisch belegt und teilweise archäologisch nachgewiesen.




Pisa


Ursprünglich ein etruskischer Handelsplatz und seit 180 v.Chr. römische Kolonie.Im Mittelalter besondere Blüte seit dem 11. Jh. Hauptsächlich handelt es sich hier vermutlich um einen Handelshafen, wenngleich er zeitweilig auch militärische Bedeutung hatte. Letztere besonders bis zur endgültigen Unterwerfung der Ligurer durch die Römer..


An der Westküste der Apennin-Halbinsel, nördlich des westlichsten Armes des Arno-Deltas (Strabo V 222, Plinius NH III 50) lag mitten in einem Binnenlagunensystem, ehemals wenig mehr als 3,5 km von der Küste entfernt die antike Stadt Pisa (Strabon V 5,2). Nach der Beschreibung desselben Autors besa der Arno, in dem der heute verlandete Auser mündete, drei Mündungsarme; an dessen nördlichem, welcher besonders durch dessen Windungen geprägt wurde, am Zusammenflußdes Arno und des Auser die Stadt lag. Dabei war, immer der Beschreibung desselben Autors folgend, die Auser leichter befahbar als der Arno.Das sumpfige Gebiet war von kleineren Wasserläufen durchzogen. Kleinere Seitenarme und künstliche Kanäle charakterisierten das umliegende Siedlungsgebiet.

Gleichzeitigt zur Verlagerung der Küstenlinie sowie zum Anstieg des Meeresspiegels ging eine fortschreitende Versumpfung des Geländes einher, welche in der Antike wie im Mittelalter durch verschiedene Maßnahmen eingedämmt wurde. Durch die allmähliche Verlandung des Mündungsgebietes sowie die Verlagerung der Küstenlinie besaß Pisa ein System von mehreren Häfen und Landeplätzen (Itinerarium Maritimum Antonini Imperatoris, CIL XI 6665: portus pisanus).

Insgesamt lag die Küstenlinie weiter landeinwärts. Die ehemalige, von den beiden Flüssen gespeiste küstennahe Lagune ist heute verschwunden. Durch alluviale Sedimente des Arno ist der heutige Küstenverlauf stark vom antiken abweichend. Die ehemalige Mündung müßte sich auf der Höhe von San Pietro in Grado befunden haben. Hier ist archäologisch unter der Basilika eine seit archaischer Zeit existierende (Hafen-)Siedlung nachgewiesen.

Der Waldbestand der Toskana hat schon früh dem Schiffshandwerk der Region den Rohstoff geliefert. Schiffsbautätigkeit ist aus römischer Zeit inschriftlich überliefert (CIL XI 1436: "... fabri navales").




Pisa


Die Untersuchungen zu den Häfen von Pisa konzentrierten sich bisher um die Frage des Hafensystems innerhalb des verzweigten sich im Laufe der Zeit mehrmals veränderten Flußdeltas des Arno, wie etwa durch die Grabungen an der Kirche San Pietro a Grado (1919-1925, 1950-1960, 1965-1967, 1995). Weitere Hafenstrukturen wurden bei Bauarbeiten an der Via Vecchia in Barbaricina 1969 gefunden. Der bedeutenste Befund zu den Häfen im Stadtgebiet stammt aus den neueren Arbeiten auf der Rückseite des Bahnhofes Pisa-San Rossone (1998-...), ca. 500 m westlich von der Piazza del Duomo entfernt.




Pisa


Die Arbeiten in Pisa-San Rossone brachten Spuren von Hafenbauten diverser Zeitstellung ans Licht. Diese Anlegestelle lag auf dem Westarm des Auser und somit in direkter Verbindung zur städtischen Ansiedlung. Die Hafenbecken und Landestellen waren ständig der Gefahr des Versandens durch zwei Flüsse ausgesetzt: dem des Arno und des heute ganz aus dem Stadtbild verschwundenen Auser. Mehrere feststellbare Veränderungen des Hafengebietes verdeutlichen dies. Sie sind nur bis zu einem gewissen Grade datierbar. Sie gehören der etruskischen Stadt und der römischen Colonia an.

Zu den Hafenstrukturen kommen noch die Reste von zahlreichen zerstörten Wasserfahrzeugen und die Wracks von 16 Schiffen und schließlich eine ungeheure Anzahl von Materialien aus den Ladungen und Schiffsausrüstungen, welche sich im ergrabenen Bereich des ehemaligen Hafenbeckens fanden.




Pisa


Marcus Heinrich Hermanns


Pisa





Roma


La localizzazione dei Navalia è oggetto di disputa tra i topografi. Lo Hülsen (1896) parla di "Navalia superiora" nel Campo Marzio" e di "Navalia inferiora" nel Foro Boario. Il Cressedi (1949-51) si rifà a questa ipotesi e colloca i Navalia superiora in corrispondenza di un molo, scoperto nel 1890 nella zona dell’ex teatro Apollo a valle di Ponte Elio (Marchetti 1891). Le Gall (1953) ritiene, invece, che non esistessero due Navalia ma uno solo la cui localizzazione, sulla base del calcolo dell’area occupata delle imbarcazioni (340 m. di lunghezza per 50 quinqueremi), andrebbe ricercata presso lungotevere dei Vallati, tra Ponte Garibaldi e Ponte Sisto. Il Coarelli (1968: 37) li posiziona  . immediatamente a monte dell’estremità dell’isola Tiberina, nel Campo Marzio meridionale, su un’area lunga non meno di 500 m.


Roma


alla fine del II secolo a.C. Esso era posto in posizione leggermente obliqua rispetto alla corrente del fiume, era lungo m. 50, largo 13,30, alto 6,50 ed era costruito in opera quadrata di tufo di Grottaoscura e dell’Aniene. La testata era, invece, in lastre di travertino.



Roma


A sud del foro Olitorio si trovava il più antico porto commerciale della città, il portus Tiberinus, che doveva essere delimitato a valle dal Ponte Emilio e a monte dal Ponte Fabricio, occupando quindi uno spazio di circa 8000 mq.

Il porto tiberino si sviluppò presso il Foro Boario laddove la corrente del Tevere è resa più tranquilla dalla interposizione dell’Isola Tiberina.



Questi caratteri geomorfologici favorirono prima la formazione di un traghetto e poi di un ponte (Pons Sublicius). Il luogo, inoltre, doveva essere particolarmente favorevole al ricovero delle imbarcazioni e doveva sfruttare un’ampia ansa del fiume, oggi scomparsa.


Roma


Si tratta probabilmente del più antico porto fluviale di Roma. Qui si trovava un emporio regolarmente frequentato almeno dall’VIII secolo a.C. da commercianti del bacino mediterraneo, provenienti soprattutto dalla Grecia e dalle sue colonie, in particolare dagli Euboici della vicina isola di Ischia, come testimoniato dagli scavi del tempio arcaico della Mater Matuta, scoperto sotto la cosiddetta "Area Sacra di S. Omobono" che si trova a livello della sponda del ramo sinistro del fiume.
Il porto tiberino venne rinnovato e sistemato insieme con il vicino ponte Emilio dai censori del 179 a.C. mentre Traiano intervenne con un nuovo restauro.

Collegato al porto è l’edificio rettangolare noto come Tempio della Fortuna Virile, ma nel quale si può identificare con certezza il tempio di Portunus che nella sua forma attuale risale al I secolo a.C.
Un altro tempio collegato all’area portuale è quello a pianta circolare di Hercules Victor, detto Olivarius. Esso fu fondato da un mercante romano, arricchitosi probabilmente con il commercio dell’olio, Marcus Octavius Herrenus. Ercole era infatti il patrono della corporazione degli oleari, i mercanti d’olio.


Roma


Poco più a sud, si trovava l’antico porto del Vicus Alexandri dove approdavano le navi di grande portata le quali risalendo il Tevere non potevano raggiungere gli scali urbani. Qui fu sbarcato nel 357 l’obelisco fatto trasportare dall’imperatore Costanzo da Tebe e collocato nella spina del Circo Massimo (ora al Laterano).


Roma


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Salamis


During Hellenistic Period, in 274 BC, a new city named Arsinoe was founded southward of Salamis by Ptolemy Philadhelphos, showing the attention that the Ptolemies were giving to the area opposite the Syrian littoral of the Seleukid state. Salamis and its harbour continued to function but without the importance they had enjoyed in the past. For geopolitical reasons Paphos was from then on, until the end of Roman period the capital of the island. The catastrophic earthquakes of 432 AC more likely fully devastated the city. Similarly, Arsinoe was also destroyed by the earthquake and succeeded by Constantia, which in turn was succeeded by Ammochostos.




Salamis


Excavations at the site of ancient Salamis by the Department of Antiquities of Cyprus and the French Mission of the University of Lyon were in progress until 1974, when the Turkish Invasion interrupted them. Several publications concerning the history and archaeology of the area has been published, the main one being Salamis in Cyprus. Homeric, Hellenistic and Roman (Karageorghis 1969). Linder and Raban also investigated the port area in 1971 (Raban 1995, 162-163), as did Flemming in 1973 (Flemming 1974, 163-174).




Salamis


From the above it could be stated that the harbour of Engomi and Geometric Salamis were on the estuary of Pedieos. Sequentially, the city moves northwards due to the gradual silting of the southern harbour, and to utilize the northern harbour. This is perhaps the meaning of Isocrates report concerning the absence of port facilities up to the years of King Evagoras. Evagoras either repaired or reconstructed the south harbour and included it in the fortification of the city. Whether the north basin was included in this program or not is yet unknown. Ιt could be used by the time of Evagoras, but in 306 during the naval battle between Demetrios and Ptolemy, Polyaenos states that the fleet of Demetrious was hidden at the north under a cliff without any reference to the north harbour. If it were the naval harbour o Salamis Demetrius’s fleet would not go to this area to be hidden. Furthermore Ploutarchus and Diodorus Siculus mention that ten ships where enough to blockade the entrance of the harbour. A 200m entrance to the southern harbour would comfortably allow ten ships to form a blockading "wall", and therefore concur with these references.

Finally, the lagoon between the two basins was certainly different than today. More likely a part of it or maybe the whole area north of the reef was terrestial, evident from the structures. Different port structures can also be assumed to exist in the south and maybe north basins. All of these of course need further investigation, which is unfortunately not possible for the moment.




Salamis


Θεοδούλου Θ. / Theodoulou, Th.




Salamis


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Topography

The island of Samos is situated in the north Aegean at a short distance (~2.35 km) from the coast of Asia Minor.

The ancient city was built where now the modern village of Pythagorion (Tegani) stands, on the SE side of the island. The Hellenistic city is situated near the port, and on the slope of the hill the remnants of a theater can be seen. The roman city is located SW. At a small distance, 6klm, west of the city lays the great Sanctuary of Hera, where the wooden uniconic statue of the goddess was kept and the her marriage to Zeus was celebrated.

The port of the city lies in a well-protected bay at the foot of mount Ambelos. It is situated at the eastern end of the ancient city and belongs to the type of the closed harbour, which is formed by the extension of the city walls to the sea.




Samos


The first inhabitants settled on the island as early as the 4th millennium BC, most probably people from Anatolia, while round the beginning of the 1st millennium it was colonized by Ionians. Samos has been one of the first Greek cities which, taking advantage of its privileged geographical position – near the Cyclades and on the maritime route of the ships to and fro Ionia, have developed a wide network of communication not only in the Mediterranean, but also with important eastern centers such as Cyprus, Egypt, Syria etc. From the beginning of the 6th c BC Samos becomes a very important artistic and cultural center of the Greek world.

The island prospered greatly under the rule of Polycrates during the second half of the 6th c BC. During that period an extensive building program is adopted, which comprised public, defense as well as technical woks that are amongst the greatest technical achievements of the ancient world, the tunnel of Eupalinos from Megara and the breakwater of the harbour. Through the building of a strong fleet, mainly of penteconters and triremes, Samos rises into a great nautical power, which would also conduct piratical attacks against her neighbors.

During the classical period the island looses part of its renown and becomes an Athenian colony in 365 BC (after its being involved in the Persian Wars and the Peloponnesian War). In the Hellenistic times the island prospers anew, the city is fortified in a wider area with a wall that stands to the present day modified by later additions, with a circumference of approximately 6.220 km. Between the years 190-129 BC it falls under the rule of Pergamon and in the Roman times is incorporated in the Roman Province of Asia. Moreover there is archaeological evidence attesting to its being a rather remarkable city at the Early Christian Times.




Samos


Excavation work in Pythagorion at Samos has been carried out at a small scale by the Greek Department of Underwater Antiquities instigated by the need for preservation works of the modern port in 1988and continued further for two consecutive campaigns in 1993-1994.




Samos


The ancient remains have been located mainly outside the modern port basin. However, at its southern part it is estimated that isolated traces of the ancient fortification are preserved underneath the remains of the Byzantine installations.




Samos


The remains that have been located were at first dated from isolated finds and ceramics at a time span from the beginning of the Hellenistic period until the Late Antiquity. Under the light of new research it has been supported (Ageliki Simossi, Le port de guerre de Thasos D.E.A., Aix-En Provence, 1993) that this is the mole of Polycrates of the 6th c BC. The stone structure and the remains of the wall foundations on the SE side have not yielded evidence that could date these structures with certainty.

Aim of this research, which has not as yet been completed, is to locate the archaic port installations, the port of Polycrates, one of the most important ancient harbours. Due to excessive modern interventions the topography has been considerably altered. The reconstructions suggested at times by scholars (Kienast, J.H., 1978, Toelle, R., 1976) are based mainly on ancient sources and the plan of later fortifications, provided that they follow the plan of ancient ones. The continuation of modern research is expected to help in the understanding of the extant remains and to bring new evidence to light that would complement the topography of the port.




Samos


Μίχα Παρασκευή / Micha Paraskevi


Samos


Die Anlagen




Schiffshaeuser


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Soloi


Excavations at Soloi and Vouni (Aipeia?) had been undertaken by the Swedish Cyprus Expedition between 1927 and 1930. From 1965 until the Invasion of 1974 the Canadian University of Laval, Quebec, was excavating the area of Soloi and meanwhile the Department of Antiquities of Cyprus excavated several tombs around the area (Christou 1973, 91-102). A.Westholm (of the SCE) gives a description of the surviving part of the port. E. Linder and A. Raban visited the area in 1971 to investigate the remains of the ancient harbour, but modern facilities for copper ores (Hellenic Mines Company) and structures of late Antiquity made the task almost impossible. According to K. Nicolaou, in 1966 "The modern bridges of the Hellenic Mines Company for ore loading is build exactly on the position of the ancient port" (Nicolaou 1966, 98).




Soloi


Conclusively, the kingdom of Soloi seems to have had its own important closed harbour during the Historical times, which must have been in use until the 1st c. BC. This harbour is evidently out of use by the end of the Roman Period.




Soloi


Θεοδούλου Θ. / Theodoulou, Th.




Soloi


Topographie

Republik Italien, Region Sizilien, Provinz Syrakus
heutiger Ort: Siracusa
Koordinaten: ca. 37° 00’ N - 15° 15’ E




Syracusa


p>Die heutige Stadt Syrakus an der Südostküste Siziliens nimmt das Gebiet der antiken korinthischen Kolonie ein. Den östlichsten Vorsprung des jungtertiären Kalkhügelrandes bildet die Insel Ortygia, die durch einen sehr schmalen, von einer Brücke überspannten Meeresarm von der Küste getrennt ist. Die griechische Kolonie auf der Insel Ortygia wurde von zwei natürlich geschützten Buchten flankiert: eine westliche größere Bucht und eine östliche kleinere Bucht.
Während der athenischen Expedition im letzten Viertel des 5.Jh.v.Chr. (416-413) spielte der große Hafen von Syrakus eine entscheidende Rolle: in ihm wurde das athenische Expeditionskorp nach mehreren mit wechselndem Kriegsglück geführten Gefechten vernichtend geschlagen.




Syracusa


Die Häfen von Syrakus fanden hauptsächlich aus historischer Betrachtung Interesse. Eine archäologische Übersicht fehlt bisher gänzlich. Neben  topographischen Arbeiten (Cristoforo Cavallari / Adolfo Holm) sind hier insbesonders gelegentliche Unterwasserfunde nach Baggerarbeiten zu nennen (NSc 1885: Architekturteile gefunden bei Drainagearbeiten im "porto grande"). 1887 wurden östlich des "foro siracusano" an der Via dell’Arsenale Reste einiger Schiffshäuser ausgegraben. In den 80er Jahren wurden einige Funde aus dem Kleinen Hafen während eines Unterwassersurveys gemeldet. Beim Parkplatzbau Ende der 90er Jahre wurden weitere Beobachtungen zu möglichen Hafeninstallationen am Forte San Giovanello gemacht.




Syracusa


Marcus Heinrich Hermanns


Syracusa


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Szczecin


Country: Poland

Location: voivodeship – zachodniopomorskie, administrative district – Szczecin, town – Szczecin

Geographical coordinates: 14 34 E , 53 26 N

The location of Szczecin harbour has been a subject of controvery and during the last couple of years a number of hypotheses have been proposed.




Szczecin


Topographie

Republik Italien, Region Campania, Provinz Latina
heutiger Ort: Terracina
Koordinaten: ca. 41° 10' N - 13° 05' E




Terracina


Die Stadt liegt südlich der pontinischen Sümpfe an der Grenze zwischen den Regionen Latium und Kampanien, auf halbem Weg zwischen Neapel und Rom. Nördlich der Bucht von Gaeta und südlich des Kap Circeo gelegen, wurde Terracina 329 v.Chr. als "colonia maritima civium romanorum" als Machtpunkt gegen die Volsker gegründet. Hauptsächlich bekannt war die Stadt wegen ihres Heiligtums auf dem Monte San Angelo, der sich als hoher Felsen bis direkt ans Meer erstreckte. Die 324-312 v.Chr. angelegte Via Appia hatte hier eine Engstelle zwischen Meer und Berg zu überwinden und verlief daher über den Berg. Erst mit den  städtebaulichen Erneuerungen in trajaneischer Zeit wurde diese Situation geändert: Die Straße verlief nun dank einer künstlichen Felsabarbeitung (Einschnitt Pisco Montano) am Wasser vorbei, unweit des zeitgleich neuen Hafens (vergleiche Ausbau der Häfen Ancona, Brindisi, Portus und Civitavecchia in trajanischer Zeit).


Die Topographie hat sich geändert. Das große Becken in dem der Fluß     mündete ist heute gänzlich verlandet und wird von der modernen Stadt eingenommen. An seiner Stelle ist noch ein kleiner Flußhafen in Betrieb. Seine Funktion ist hauptsächlich Fischereibetrieb sowie Fährdienst zu den Pontinischen Inseln.




Terracina


Die Bautechnik war opus reticulatum in der äußeren Hülle, opus mixtum im inneren Kern. Große Teile der Mole, welche heute nicht mehr erhalten sind, wurden von G.Lugli dokumentiert (Bild bei Felici 1998).




Terracina


Die Zeit des ersten Molenbaus im Jahre 179 v.Chr. durch den Censor M. Aemilius Lepidus ist literarisch überliefert (Livius 40,51,2). Umbauten sind unter Trajan (98-117 n.Chr.) und unter Antonius Pius (138-161 n.Chr.) durchgeführt worden ( Historia Augusta, Antonius Pius VIII,3).




Terracina


Topography

The island of Thasos is situated in the north Aegean, near the Thracian coast, on the maritime routes leading to the Black Sea and the Thracian mainland.




Thasos


The first colony of the island that was made by Parian settlers under Telesikles, is located on the north coast and is dated round 680 B.C. After founding the colony and with the assistance of other Greeks, the settlers expanded on the Thracian coast from Strymona River to Nestos and Stryme creating the Peraia.

The potential that the island offered for various cultivations (e.g. vines, timber), for fishing but mainly the goldmines and silver mines not only on the island but also in Thrace (Paggeo, Skapti Yle), played a primordial part in its evolution into a great commercial and nautical power.

The archaeological evidence for the commercial relations of the island is abundant. Silver coins of Thasos are traced as far as Egypt and Syria, while products of areas such as Corinth and Ionia can be found as early as the last quarter of the 7th c B.C.

The city of Thasos, big and populous, is enclosed since the beginning of the 5th c B.C. within a fortification wall made of marble. Because of its strategic position as a bridging point towards Thrace and Asia Minor, along with Imbros and Temedos, it attracted the interest of local and foreign powers. During the Persian Wars Mardonios sieged it in 492 B.C., while after the victory of the Greeks Thasos entered the Athenian League with the obligation to provide 33 triremes. It was its position on the grain trade route, that made her confront the Athenians, when she attempted to leave the League, and endure the dissolution of her fortification walls and her navy as well as the detachment of her possessions in the mainland. The island prospers anew after the reacquisition of part of its territorial possessions and the rise of the wine exports (ranging from the African coast to the Black Sea). After a period of civil combats the city is restored with the construction of big edifices and the reinforcement of the fortification wall, as a result of the progress made at that time in the besiege techniques. During the Hellenistic period it is incorporated in the Macedonian Kingdom and in the following Roman times declines. It prospers again during the Early Christian times.

Within this geographical and historical framework ancient Thasos formed as early as the 7th c B.C. on the north-eastern end of the island port installations to serve the naval force both of the city and of her allies, as a forward base of the Athenian League in the north Aegean, as well as the increased import and export commercial traffic. The ports of the island are among the most characteristic and best-preserved ancient ports of Greece.




Thasos


The ports were already known to the travelers of the 19th century (G. Perrot, 1864, Conze, 1860). Modern research that has been undertaken in the area is directly connected to dredging works in the port basin for the facilitation of current mooring needs. At the beginning, 1980-1984, small-scale excavation work was carried out by the Greek Department of Underwater Antiquities. Further to this a joint mission of the Greek Department of Underwater Antiquities and the French School at Athens carried out the excavation of the closed military port and of part of the commercial port in eight campaigns.




Thasos


Based on the archaeological evidence, mainly ceramics and isolated finds, along with certain constructional characteristics the excavators discern three main phases in the history of the military port. The fortification of the port is dated round the end of the 6th –beginning of 5th c BC based on the ceramic evidence and similarities to the land fortification. The ship sheds are dated round the middle of the 5th c. At the end of the 4th c BC the wall was reinforced with circular towers, just as the land wall is reinforced with square ones. At that time the artificial beach at the western end outside the port is also dated. During the Early Christian Times (4th – 7th c AD) a new segment of mole is constructed and the entrance of the port is shifted. The port from that time onwards serves the increased commercial activity of the area. The port is abandoned after the destruction of the city at the late 6th – early 7th c AD and starts functioning again from the 10th c.

The mole of the commercial harbour dates at the end of the 6th – beginning of the 5th c BC (its foundations), is rebuilt round the 4th c BC and continues in use until the 7th c AD.

The ports of Thasos are very important for the study of ancient port installations. The military port of Thasos is one of the most characteristic examples of a closed harbour with some of the most ancient extant ship sheds. Their history is interwoven with the economic life of the city and their forms is dictated by the technical progress made both in architecture and besiege techniques.

As regards especially the military harbour, it is walled during the classical times and is provided with ship sheds, capable of sheltering a great number of warships. Later on their fortification is enhanced through the construction of circular towers and in the Early Christian Times its plan is altered and the entrance is shifted to where it stands today. Based on the results of the research this is one of the best-preserved examples of the closed military harbour type, which evolved in Greece in order to serve the sea defense of the city along with the protection and mooring of its ships, in places where, by position, juncture or tradition relied on the navy as their main weapon.




Thasos


Μίχα Παρασκευή / Micha Paraskevi


Thasos


That the feelings between Romans and natives were not always of the friendliest, is indicated by the above-mentioned Friesian revolt of AD 28 and the temporary abandonment of the Velsen area by the Romans, probably connected with it.




Velsen


The first Roman finds were discovered in 1945, in the spoil of a World War II German anti-tank trench. They belonged to what was later called Velsen 2 (since the discovery in 1972 of Velsen 1 by members of the Velsen section of the Netherlands Association of Amateur Archaeologists [AWN]). A date of AD 40-50 was indicated by these finds and also by finds from later activities. The sparse features of Velsen 2 - rows of rammed posts and deposits of the former Oer-IJ - appear to indicate, in conjunction with the nature of the finds and a comparison with Velsen 1, the presence of quays and/or jetties, probably connected with a fortified base.

From 1973 to 1991, extensive excavations have taken place every year, with the exception of 1983-1984. As a result of the close teamwork between the AWN-amateurs and the Instituut voor Prae- en Protohistorie (IPP) of the University of Amsterdam (UvA), an area of over 6 ha in size has been totally laid bare.

The major difficulty encountered during the excavations, was the severe erosion, which has removed over 2 m from the original Roman surface, leaving only the deepest features. A slight consolation was the fact that the site remained undeveloped following the Roman occupation.
 
 
 
 


Velsen


Topographie

Republik Italien, Region Latium, Provinz Latina      
Koordinaten: ca. 40° 45' N - 13° 25' E




Ventotene


Gleichnamige, südlichste Insel des Archipels der Pontinischen Inseln

(keyword sea harbour) Die Ponza-Inseln (arcipelago Pontino) sind vulkanischen Ursprungs und  liegen vor der Küste des südlichen Latiums. Sie begrenzen den Golf von Gaeta gegen das Tyrrhenische Meer. Zu der südöstlichsten Gruppe dieser Inseln gehören die Inseln Ventotene und Santo Stefano. Die Insel Ventotene, mit gleichnamiger Ortschaft, besteht nur aus einem Kraterrest von 3 km Länge und 1 km Breite.




Ventotene


Marcus Heinrich Hermanns


Ventotene


Mediaeval port in Wolin




Wolin


Province Zachodniopomorskie, administrative district kamieński, commune Wolin, Polska


Wolin


14 ° 31’ E, 53 ° 50’ N



Wolin


In the second half of XIX century one acceded to first archaeological work connected with research legendary emporium Jomsborg†Wineta (well-known from written sources), which in result of works archaeologists and historians one identified as Wolin.


Wolin


Author: I. Pomian


Wolin


Topographie

Bundesrepublik Deutschland, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Kreis Wesel
heutiger Ort: Xanten
Koordinaten: ca. 51° 45’ N - 06° 55’ E



Xanten


Die ca. 73 ha große römische Colonia Ulpia Traiana (CUT) wurde nördlich des um 12 v.Chr. über dem Rhein (heute Alt-Rhein) gelegenen Doppellegionslager Vetera I und II gegründet. Die um 100 n.Chr. gegründete Stadtanlage, deren östliche Stadtfront an einen natürlichen Rheinarm stieß,lag auf einer hochwasserfreien Terrasse, der sog. Niederterrasse, ca.12-17 m üNN.




Xanten


Zu römischer Zeit müssen westlich und östlich dieser Niederterrasse, einer eiszeitlichen Moräne, bruchartige Gelände gelegen haben. Heute liegen die Ruinen der antiken Stadt ca.2 km vom heutigen Verlauf des Rheins entfernt. Die Situation, daß der Alt-Rhein-Arm als Unterstrom mit dem Hauptstrom in Verbindung stand, sowie der asymmetrische Profilverlauf der Rinne mit einem stadtwärts gelegenen Prallhang bot die Gelegenheit zum Ausbau von Kaianlagen und somit für das sichere Festmachen der Schiffe zum Be- und Entladen. Als Arbeitsfläche dieses Flußhafens diente der Bereich vor den Stadtmauern, wie die Schicht IIIk der Altgrabungen vermuten läßt, welche hauptsächlich aus Schiefersplitter und Grauwackebrocken besteht. Als ausgleichende Schicht zwischen Stadtmauer und Kai wird sie als Reste vorübergehend gelagerten Materials interpretiert. Diverse Abfallschichten aus den neueren Grabungen lassen ebenso eine rege Handwerkstätigkeit in Hafennähe vermuten.

An der weitläufigen Uferzone vor der Stadtmauer werden Werften und Schiffsländen vermutet. Durch die feuchten Erhaltungsbedingungen haben sich nicht nur die hölzernen Kaianlagen erhalten. Da schon in römischer Zeit das Hafenbecken teilweise als Müllkippe benutzt wurde, gelangten nicht nur Gegenstände des alltäglichen Gebrauchs hinein sondern auch Spuren der damaligen Umwelt, deren Untersuchung heute die Möglichkeit zur Rekonstruktion der gleichzeitigen Flora und Fauna bieten. Doch nicht nur Müllablagerungen und eingeschwemmte Materialien haben das Aussehen der Hafenrinne bestimmt. Auch überschwemmungen haben dauerhafte Spuren hinterlassen. So lassen sich in den Ablagerungen drei größere überschwemmungshorizonte innerhalb des 1.Jhs.n.Chr. ablesen und somit den Schluß zu, daß bereits sehr früh der Hafen zu verlanden drohte. Schon in der zweiten Hälfte des 2.Jhs. n.Chr. war der Hafen verlandet und konnte nicht mehr als solcher genutzt werden. Er diente fortan weiterhin nur noch als Müllkippe. Hauptsächlich Funde aus der "Müllkippe", wie div. Holzfunde, Korbwaren, Leder und Textilien, Seile, Speise- und Pflanzenreste.

Die Datierung dieser Bauwerke beruht auf der archäologischen Interpretation der geologischen (alluvialen) Stratigraphie und deren beinhaltende Funde. Aus der Stadtgeschichte ist bekannt, daß 105/106 mit der Stadtmauerbau begonnen wurde. Erst 134/135 wurde der Hafenkai ausgebessert, womöglich auch nach Norden verlängert, da die Verlandung des Rheinarms von Süden her erfolgte. Auf dem verlandeten Teil entsteht außerhalb der Stadtmauer eine kleine Vorstadt aus Bootsschuppen (sic?) und Gewerbebetrieben (Chr.B.Rüger).




Xanten


Erste Grabungen 1934 bis 1937 (H.Stoll, P.Wieland, H.von Petrikovits): ca. 27 m der Kaianlage
Weitere Grabungen 1974 bis 1977 (M.Gechter): Kaianlage (Erweiterung nach Nordosten) und Mole

Wegen der beobachteten Grundwasserabsenkung und wegen der somit drohenden Austrocknung der Naßbefunde eingeleitete Rettungsmaßnahmen 1993. Erstellung eines geologischen Gutachtens zur Rekonstruktion der Rheinrinne zur Römerzeit sowie zur Rekonstruktion der Verlandungs- und Verlagerungsprozesse des Rheinarmes.




Xanten


Die Errichtung der Kaianlage wird zu Beginn des 2.Jhs.n.Chr. angesetzt ("in seiner letzten erkennbaren Form bald nach 98 n.Chr", "zwischen 80 n.Chr. und der Erbauung der CUT um 100 n.Chr.": H.v.Petrikovits). Die Kaianlage würde somit aus der Erbauungszeit der Stadt stammen. Da aber die geologische Stratigraphie noch nicht ganz geklärt ist, sind diese Ergebnisse der Grabungen aus den 30er Jahren mit der Einteilung in diverse Bauphasen nicht ganz schlüssig und bedürfen einer überprüfung. Die Erstellung des letzten Bauzustandes der Bohlbrücke (Bauperiode III) wird wegen der Verlandung des Rheinarmes ungefähr zwischen 120 und spätetens 150 n.Chr. anzusetzen sein (Keramikdatierung: H.v.Petrikovits). Die Tatsache, daß nach der Aufgabe des Siedlungsgeländes im 3.Jh.n.Chr. die Zone an der Terrassenkante abgespült wurde, lassen eine Bestimmung früher Laufhorizonte nicht eindeutig zu (S.Leih).




Xanten


Bei der Hafeninstallation der CUT handelt es sich um uferparallele hölzerne Kaianlagen.Sie befestigten und schützten die Uferkante und ermöglichten somit das Anlegen von Schiffen zum Löschen und Aufnehmen der Ladung. Rückwärtig schloß sich eine Balkendecke an. Letztere diente zur Stabilisierung und ermöglichte die Begehbarkeit der üferböschung. Für beide finden sich Parallelen im steinernen römischen Hafenbau.

Die älteste Ufersicherung wurde innerhalb der neueren Grabungen erkannt und war ein Fangdamm, der aus kleinen Pfosten mit Astgeflecht bestand. Er stammt aus dem frühen 1. Jahrhundert und war nur in seinem unteren Bereich noch erhalten. Massiver waren die Uferbefestigungen der späteren Zeit. Drei Reihen sorgfältig bearbeiteter angespitzter Pfähle, die einen maximalen Durchmesser von 40cm besitzen, gehörten zu einer vermutlich in zwei Bauphasen erbauten stabilen Kaiwand. Hierüber wird die dendrochronologische Untersuchung der Hölzer nähere Aufschlüsse ergeben.




Xanten


Die "Holzbrückenkonstruktion": In die oberste und zweitoberste Balkenlage waren verlegte Ankerbalken mit Schwalbenschwänzen in Winkel eingebunden. Diese Ankerbalken waren auf teils gerammte, teils eingegrabene Pfosten aufgezapft und waren gegen den Rheinarm hin um 5-7,5° geneigt. Während die unteren Ankerbalken an ihrem landseitigen Ende blind ausliefen, führten die oberen Anker zu einem weiteren Balkensystem. Dies war ein aus Tragbalken, Auflagebalken und Belag gebildeter Boden, der auf Tragpfosten aufgezapft war. Die Bohlbrücke schloß mit der Kaiwand in einem Winkel von etwa 11,5° an. Gleichzeitig ist auch in den Profilen ein ansteigen der Bohlbrücke gegen Westen zu bemerken. Den Brückenbelag bildeten etwa 3 cm starke Bretter von mindestens 3 m Länge. Sie waren mit Fugen von 5-10 cm verlegt. Wie der eigentliche Belag darüber ausgesehen haben mag ist unklar. Wie man sich auch den Kaibelag vorstellen mag, immer ergibt sich durch diese Winkel- und Niveauunterschiede eine Stufe vom Kai zur Bohlbrücke hinunter.




Xanten


Ein Vergleich bietet die uferparallele Kaimauer in Aquileia. Es handelt sich hier um ein steinernes Bauwerk bestehend aus einer Reihe hochkant verbauter Orthostaten. Darüber liegt eine Lage flachverlegter, leicht vorspringender Platten mit in regelmäßigen Abständen vorkragenden Steinen mit senkrechtem Loch zur Vertäuung von Booten. Zu einer Holzkaiwand vgl.die Befunde aus London,Classe (Ravenna) und Pisa, San Rossone. Aus Pisa sind auch Befunde bekannt, welche auf einen ins Wasser führenden Steg deuten lassen. Ebenso aus Marseille. Die hier ebenfalls gefundene Holzkaiwand läßt sich nicht direkt mit der Balkenwand in Xanten vergleichen. Während sie in Xanten Bestandteil einer selbsttragenden Holzkonstruktion ist, so besitzt sie im Befund von Marseille lediglich die Funktion der Verschalung der rückwärtig eingebrachten Schüttung hydraulischen Betons (vgl. Homepage zum Hafen von Cosa). Eine Balkenwand-Uferbefestigung, deren Balken mittels Schwalbenschwanzverbindung verbunden sind, ist aus den Altgrabungen im und am Lago di Nemi südlich von Rom bekannt. Eine Uferbefestigung aus einer Pfostenreihe bestehend ist auch aus Mainz bekannt.




Xanten


Marcus Heinrich Hermanns


Xanten


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