Harbour informations about: Sea Harbour

Coastal situation: Akko is found in a natural bay, 15 km north of Haifa
River situation: 1.5 km to the south of the bay of Akko is the Na’aman River.


The ancient town of Amathous was the capital of the ancient Cypriot Kingdom of Amathous, which was located on the south coast of Cyprus. It is found at the southeast part of the new city of Limassol, between the old and the new road that connects Limassol with Nikosia and Larnaca. Human presence in the area is attested to from the eighth millennium BC, and in Amathous specifically, human activity is evident from 1100 BC.


Der Ort liegt im südlichen Abschnitt des langgestreckten Golfo de Rosas im Küstenabschnitt der östlichen Pyrinäen, an der Costa Brava. Südlich des Kap de Creus bildet sich bei L'Escala eine weite, langgezogene geschützte Bucht die sich als schützender Etappenaufenthalt anbietet. Sehr gefürchtet sind in dieser Region die starken Nord und Ostwinde (Tramontana, Mistral), welche sich an der südfranzösischen Küste (Golfe du Lion) bilden und die Segelschiffahrt hier stark gefährden.


Atlit is located to the south of Haifa (20 km). It may be reached by the coastal highway or the ancient road to Haifa. The ancient site spreads on a rocky island, on an area of 700 acres. The boarders are: the sea to the west, to the east is the road cut through the kurkar ridge (parallel to the shore) and to the north is the Oren River outlet.


Halbinsel nordöstlich des heutigen Tunis; ehemals schmale Halbinsel an der Binnenlagune. Zwischenzeitlich hat ein starker Verlandungsprozeß zu einschneidenden Veränderungen der topographischen Verhältnisse geführt, insbesondere im nördlichen Teil der ehemaligen Halbinsel. Drang einst das Meer zwischen dem Kap Sidi Ali el-Mekki und dem Kap Gamarth, (der nördlichen Spitze der karthagischen Halbinsel) tief in das Land hinein, so zieht sich heute die Küste in einer nur leicht nach innen gekrümmten Linie zwischen den beiden Vorgebirgen hin. Der Wasserstand mag, anhand von archäologichen Beobachtungen (Hurst 1979) ungefähr gleich dem heutigen gewesen sein. Polybios beschreibt uns die Lage wie folgt (I 73): Karthago liegt an einem Meerbusen, in den es sich in Gestalt einer Halbinsel vorstreckt, so daß es fast überall von Wasser, auf der einen Seite von der See, auf der anderen von einer Lagune, umschlossen ist. Die Landenge, die es mit Libyen verbindet, ist etwa fünfundzwanzig Stadien breit. Nach der Seeseite hin liegt nicht weit entfernt die Stadt Ityke (Utica), auf der anderen Seite an der Lagune Tynes (Tunis)." Die Hafenanlagen sind heute noch sichtbar als Lagunenweiher (ringförmige Lagune von Douar-Chott).


An einer westost verlaufenden Landzunge, in deren südlichem Bereich sich eine geschützte Bucht bildet. Im Hinterland bildet sich im sumpfigen Gebiet der Maremma eine barrierenartige, küstenparallele Lagune. In dieser Gegend, in der das hydrographische Gleichgewicht immer problematisch und Versumpfung eine dauernde Gefahr war, brachte die römische Landaufteilung auch eine Lösung des Drainageproblems mit sich: die ganze Küstenebene wurde mit einem dichten Netz rechtwinkliger zueinander verlaufender Kanäle überzogen. Es bildete sich somit ein komplexes System einer Lagune für Fischzucht, Be- und Entwässungsanlagen sowie ein geschützter Ankerplatz.


The bays at Dor are called in Arabic Tantura "peak of the cape" after the small cape which divides the bay in two. In the Talmudic literature, it is called "the tooth of Dor". It is one of the few natural anchorages on the coast of Israel. Dor is one of the largest ancient Tels (mound) in Israel.

The ancient settlement was built on a rocky promontory, which is part of an aeolinite (kurkar – carbonate cemented quartz sandstone) ridge that stretches parallel to the sea and the Carmel Range. To the south of the Tel is a sandy shore with several offshore islands that form the continuation of he western kurkar ridge. These islands form a lagoon that is a natural anchorage still used nowadays. To the north of the Tel is the North Bay, partially protected by an island that provides a natural anchorage. In ancient periods this body of water was used as a harbor attested by the marine installation found to the south of the bay, at the northern edge of the Tel. The main anchorage was to the south of the Tel, today separated by a tombolo (sandbar), thus comprising the South Bay and the Tantura Lagoon. Adjacent to the Tantura Lagoon are the Nahsholim Kibbutz and the Dor Farm. The site of Dor is found to the south of Haifa (30 km) and may be reached by the coastal highway or the old road to Haifa.

The Crusaders built a castle on the small cape on the coast of Dor and named it after the family of de Merle, which received the area from the lords of Caesarea as their domain. Merle was captured by Saladin in 1187. The Crusader fortress was abandoned just before the fall of Atlit in 1291. Sketches from the 19th century show a high tpwer, which was apparently part of a Norman keep. Today, there are no remains of this tower nor of its foundations.


The port of Dover lies on the coast of south-east England beside the English Channel, within sight of and at the nearest point to France. It is situated at the mouth of the River Dour in a deep narrow valley between high chalk hills. As the sea level has been rising relative to the land since the last Ice Age, thereby forming high cliffs, the exact position of the coastline in prehistoric and Roman times is not known.


Prehistoric Trade MapRecent archaeological excavations have produced material which shows that people on Guernsey were trading  from the early prehistoric period. At the Royal Hotel site in St Peter Port, flint tools and pottery similar to types from the Paris basin were found.  The people who brought these items to the island probably brought farming skills and techniques with them in the early neolithic period. During the period of megalithic tomb building a ritual deposit of barbed and tanged arrowheads was made at Les Fouaillages in the low lying north of the island. A distance of more than 350 kilometres and a difficult sea crossing would have been necessary to transport these prestige objects to Guernsey. Polished jade axes from the French Alps also made their way to the island. Later in the Bronze Age, metalsmiths came to the island with new skills and their characteristic large decorated beakers, although there is little evidence of significant trade in the Later Bronze Age. By the Iron Age Guernsey was well established as a port of call between the northern coast of Brittany and the southern coast of Britain.  Pottery imports from Armorica and other goods such as shale from Hengistbury Head on the south coast of Britain are found in Guernsey. By 50BC a trading network is evident with substantial cargoes of amphorae containing wine and garum (fish sauce) passing in and out of the island along with other fine imported pots from Armorica. During the years leading up to the Roman conquest of Britain evidence for trade continued. At the native farmstead at Les Tranquesous, terra nigra wares from Rennes were found alongside Gaulish pottery, indicating that cargoes were reaching the islands en route from France to Britain throughout the period.  Amphorae from the early first century AD were found just outside the modern harbour of St Peter Port and recent land excavations have provided further evidence that the islands were under Roman influence from the time of their presence in neighbouring Gaul. Remains of cargoes from the Roman period litter a wide area of the east coast around the present harbour.

The Gallo-Roman ship Guernsey 1 was carrying a cargo of pitch. Recent research (Connan et al, 2001) has located the source of the pitch to the Les Landes region of France, suggesting that the ship was on its way from there to Guernsey and on to Britain. The pitch may have been used for sealing or lining amphorae or barrels. Barrel staves were also found on the ship.  There was no evidence that it was used for caulking the ship itself. 


The capital of the kingdom of Kition is located at the centre of the present town of Larnaca, in the area of Pamboula, where the ancient naval port was found. The rural area of the kingdom extended around the district of Larnaca between the areas of the kingdoms of Salamis, with which existed a continual rivalry, and of Αmathous.


The kingdom of Kourion was found on the southwest shore of Cyprus. Its capital was at the cove of the bay west of Akrotiri peninsula. The first evidence of occupation in the area dates to Neolithic Period (at site of Sotira). Although a specific founder is not mentioned in ancient texts, Herodotus and Strabo attribute the establishment of the kingdom to colonists from Argos. The colonisation of the kingdom by Achaeans is further re-enforced by the presence of Mycenean tombs in the area. The city is well witnessed during Historical times through the archaeological remains and ancient written sources until the Arab raids, when the city was transferred to the area of Episkopi.


The kingdom of Kyrenia occupied the east central region of the north coast of Cyprus. The historian Hill mentions that Kyrenia is referred to for the first time as a city under the independent king definitely after 315 b.C (Hill 1940, 113).


The ruins of the town of Lapethos extend over the area of the beach, at the north side of the village Karavas, at the site of Lambousa, at the western part of the north coast of Cyprus. To a large extent the city walls are visible especially from the hill, named Troullin, which most likely compromised the acropolis. The surrounding territory consists of a fertile plain, which was until 1974 covered with citrous trees, and watered by the two springs of Lapethos and Karavas. This rich rural region, combined with its proximity to the Anatolian coast, was the incentive for the foundation of a large kingdom with a harbour facility at this site, which, according to researchers, dominated the neighbouring kingdom of Kyrenia.

A coastal city was already established in the Late Bronze Age. In the surrounding region settlements dating from the Neolithic, and the Early and Late Bronze Age are evident, however settlelments of the Geometric period are concentrated further south towards the Pendadaktilos mountain, in the area of present day Lapethos and Karavas. This site on the coast (Lambousa) cannot be dated ealier than the Late Bronze Age. The city seems to flourish mainly from the Archaic until the Roman period. The coins minted in the city date back to as early as the 4th and 5th Century BC and include the names of the Kings. In the mid 4th Century coins depicting Athena and certain Phoenecian elements appear, indicating the transfer of power to Phoenecian Kings, and reflecting the attempts by the Persian Empire to consolidate a Phoenecian client state on Cyprus. In 312 BC Ptolemy suspected that King Praxippos of Lapethos was cooperating with Antigonos. During the Roman period the city compromised one of the four provincial centers of Cyprus, and during the early Byzantine period it was an Episcopal seat. The city was finally abandoned after the Arab raids and moved northward.


The kingdom of ancient Marion was at the valley of the modern Polis tis Chryxochous, at the northwest littoral of Cyprus. Both the ancient and the modern settlements are located on approximately the same point on the south of the shore, in the cove of Chrysochou bay. Extended cemeteries from the Early Geometric Period down to Roman and Byzantine Times have been well recorded occasionally or by systematic excavations. The first period of the city’s life was truculently interrupted in 312 BC, when Ptolemy Soter totally devastated the town and moved the population to the newly established Nea Paphos. At about 270 BC the city was rebuild from Ptolemy Philadelphos and renamed Arsinoe in honour of Arsinoe Philadelphos (Childs 1988, 121).
It was once a rich kingdom with several resources located as it was in a fertile, well irrigated valley, abundant pastoral land, rich forests, and with control of the copper and perhaps gold mines of Limni area. The city played a significant historical role having mainly Aegean orientation, although occasionally "philopersian" kings took on or were deputed to the throne. The excavations, artifacts, and moreover the history of the kingdom clearly indicate this tension (Nicolaou 1964, 131-187 and Childs 1988, 121-130).


The Kingdom of Paphos occupied the west and north-west coast of Cyprus, having borders with the kingdom of Marion to the north, and the kingdom of Kourion to the south-east. The capital of the kingdom, called Παλαίπαφος, was located at the modern day site of Kouklia, at a distance of approximately one kilometer from the coast. In the 4th century BC the capital was transferred northwards, by King Nicocles, to an already existing town which boasted an anchorage. The new capital was named Nea Paphos and is located in the area known today as Kato Paphos. This grandiose plan to transfer the capital included the construction of a large harbour facility at the new site. It is possible that the two rivals who vied for supremacy on Cyprus at the end of the 4th century BC, Ptolemy Soter and Demetrius the Besieger, contributed to the harbour works in order to benefit from the safe harbour at the west coast that would latter be afforded to them (Daszewski 1987, 171-175, Hohlfelder 1995, 194).


The kingdom of Salamis extended to the east littoral of Cyprus with its capital on the estuary of Pediaeos river. According to myth the establisher of the city was the Trojan hero Teukros, son of Telamon, the king of island of Salamina in Saronic Gulf (Greece). The city succeeded Prehistoric Engomi and flourish during Geometric period as the wealthy finds of the so-called ‘king tombs’ indicate. Professor Karageorghis states that the Archaic and Classical city extended seaward, north of the Geometric city, in a larger area around the port, and was the predominant city of Cyprus. This northward movement may have been due to the gradual silting of the port by the river’s sediments and thus coaxing the inhabitants to the area of the northern anchorage (Karageorghis 1969, 167-169).


The kingdom of Soloi was on the northwest coast of Cyprus with its capital on the cove of the Morphou bay. The ruins of the ancient city are located at the foothills of a low hill called even today "Palaia Hora" (Ancient Capital), east of the village of Potamos tou Kampou. The river of Kampos flows west of the hill and on the east side of the estuary the ancient port can be traced. According to myth the Athenian Trojan heroes Phaleros and Demofon established the city. A second interpretation given from Ploutarchos considers that king Philokypros established the city of Soloi, which succeeded the older city of Aipeia that had been established by Demophon. He mentions that the Athenian legislator Solon visited the city of Aipeia, where Philokypros was the king and encouraged him to relocate the city from the inaccessible place it was to the neighboring valley. The relocation was then performed and the new city got the name Soloi, thus honoring the Legislator. However, the excavations indicated that in the area of Vouni, which was considered as the position of Aipeia nothing earlier the Classical Period was found, and moreover in the area of Soloi some tombs go back to Geometric Times. Unfortunately, the question still exists since the excavations were interrupted by the Invasion of 1974. In its history, the kingdom of Soloi kept an Aegean orientation as the myth and archaeological record proves, and as the position of the city on the northwest shore suggests. It comprises the second nearest port after Marion, located further west, coming from the island of Rhodes and the Aegean via the Cilician Sea.


In den sog. großen Hafen, einer großen natürlichen Bucht, geschlossen auf der einen Seite durch die Insel Ortygia, auf der anderen durch die Halbinsel Plemmyrion (heute Peninsola della Maddalena) münden die Flüße Anapa und Ciane.

Dem sog. kleinen Hafen (oder Lakkios) östlich der Ortygia geschützt durch die Küstenfront der Achradina. Die Topografie hat sich seit der Antike stark verändert. Der antike Küstenverlauf anders als heutiger, entspricht ca. der heutigen –3.00 m Linie.

Im Gegensatz zu Cristoforo Cavallari, geht man heute aus urbanistischen Überlegungen von einer geraden Verlängerung der Mittelachse der Ortygia nach Norden aus. Der Istmus befand sich in der Antike weiter nord-östlich (heute ca. Piazza Santa Lucia), die Brücke, welche die Insel Ortygia mit dem Festland verband, würde somit im Bereich des jetzigen kleinen Hafens zu suchen sein. Dieser hätte weiter gelegen. Dies könnte somit auch eine Erklärung für die relative Fundleere im inneren Bereich des jetzigens Hafens sein, dessen Öffnung mit dem Kanal zwischen dem vorgelagerten Unterwasserriff Gerhard Kapitän untersucht hat.


The Archaeological site in Wolin is situated in S – E part coastal island Wolin, over sandy bank of river Dziwna on one of three shoulders of the Oder (Odra) delta, about 25 km from present coast of the sea. Island is found between Pomorska Bay on north and Gulf of Szczecin on south. From island Uznam separate her river Świna and from land river Dziwna. Wolin situated is in place where waterway – Warta and Oder river basin crosses with land road along the coast Baltic (E – W). Track continental lead from Hamburg to Novgorod – writes about this Adam of Bremen. Track united island Wolin with land in place narrower troughs of river Dziwna, where are found silt isles. In point of passage on bank of island was post-glacial sandy bank surrounded with swamps. This region was flooded in period high state of water in river.


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