Harbour informations about: Function commercial

Later Periods

After the Crusaders were expelled from Akko in 1291 and the Mameluks destroyed the city, the port fell into disuse. Lannoy, a traveler from Flanders who visited Palestine in the 15th century, described the ruins of Akko as uninhabited, aside from two or three clerks who were responsible for reporting all shipping movement to the Mameluk government, and a Venetian trader who looked after the cotton belonging to Italian merchants and stored in some buildings in the port. Lannoy referred to the remains of the Crusader port, which according to his report could still accommodate small ships. A map made at the beginning of the Ottoman rule (1525-26), shows that the port was still in use.

Reports from 1650, noted that the port of Akko was so clogged with sand that it was necessary to anchor out at the sea and load all the cargo on small boat to bring them to the city. Towards the end of the 17th century, despite Akko’s growing trade (particularly in the cotton trade by the French merchants) the port’s condition deteriorated. The English traveler Pococke, who visited Akko in 1738, wrote that the port being congested with debris and remnants of the ancient harbor permitted only small ships to anchor and load during the summer. After Dahir al-Umar took control of Akko in the mid-18th century and made his capital in the city, he built safe warehouses and made plans to repair the port. However, he found that the conditions of the harbor are not reparable, and considering the hazardous winds, decided instead to built the port in Haifa.

Al-JazzarPasha, Dahir al-Umar’s successor, built a mole to the port’s entrance and installed special safety measures to guaranty safe entrance to the port in the winter. In 1807-1808, Sulayman Pasha renovated the mole, which reached the Tower of the Flies and built a wooden bridge to connect the gate of the port to the anchorage, to enable passengers disembark. Passengers also were able to walk from the port’s gate to the boats and cargoes were loaded from the gate. Akko ceased to serve as a port during the end of the Turkish rule, in the 19th century. Ships were not able to anchor at Akko and preferred the port of Haifa.


The site was developed as the capital of the kingdom, in which the native "eteocypriot" population centralized after the colonising Mycenaean-Greek element on the island ascended as the dominant culture. From archaeological evidence it is clear that the Amathous Kingdom developed, and conceeded to the fate of all the Cypriot Kingdoms, with the advent and obeisance of Cyprus to Alexander and afterwards the Ptolemeys. The city existenced until the seventh century AC when, after the second Arab raid (653-654 AD), it was completely destroyed and failed afterwards to recover. During the Historical period the city’s administrative center, sanctuaries, and some residences, were located on a hill that was both naturally and artificialy fortified, and that overlooked the territory and the sea to the south. The city was concentrated to the southeast of the hill where a small natural bay formed a natural anchorage, and was most likely used as the city’s harbour from its founding.


Wie der Name "Emporion" vermuten läßt, hatte der Hafen hauptsächlich eine Handelsfunktion.


Anzio liegt 58 Km südwestlich von Rom entfernt. Als Ausflugs- und Erholungsort der Metropole Rom findet der Hafen heute als Fischerrei- wie auch als Yachthafen Verwendung. Vereinzelt auch Fährverkehr zu den Pontinischen Inseln (s. auch Terracina). In der Antike diente er sicherlich als Ausweich- oder Reedehafen für Ostia (vgl. der römische Hafen Torre Astura).


Die Tatsache daß der Hafen mit dem Festland nur durch ein schmales Viadukt verbunden ist wie auch die Tatsache der fehlenden Magazine spricht für keinen Handelshafen. Es könnte sich hier um einen Schutzhafen, zwischen dem Capo Circeo und Ostia gelegen, gehandelt haben (Strabo V 3,5, vgl. Anzio).


The separation of the harbor into two mooring areas enabled a distinction between the "home quay", for the Sidonian or other Phoenician ships to anchor and the "free quay" or emporium for foreign ships, transshipping the cargo in lighters to harbors such as Akko and Sidon.


Der Handelshafen war mit dem Meer durch eine 70 Fuß breite Zufahrt verbunden. Da der Kriegshafen als militärisches Sperrgebiet durch eine zweifache Mauer geschützt war (Oros, hist IV 22,6) konnte man vom Handelshafen durch bestimmte Tore direkt in die Stadt gelangen. Während die Anlage des Handelshafens mit als "limen" bezeichnet wurde, so trug der Rundhafen den Namen Kothon (Strabo XVII, 3.14, vgl. die Schilderung der Stadterstürmung durch die Römer bei Appian, VIII, 123-124, 127). Grabungen erbrachten Erkenntnisse zu der Kaianlage des rechteckigen Handelshafen und zur sog. "Admiralitäts-Insel" des Kriegshafens. Eine zeitliche Abfolge innerhalb des Hafensbaus erscheint möglich, wobei der Handelshafen etwas älter wäre.


Handelshafen, Etappenhafen und "Industriehafen": Fischfang und Fischzucht, Fischverabeitung, Fischverpackung und Verschiffung innerhalb eines Großbetriebes.


Due to its situation at this `fork', the settlement was included in the network of Northwest-European shipping routes: the Lower Rhine formed a direct link with the German Rhine area, the Kromme Rijn with (sea)routes to England, the North of France, the Northern Netherlands, North Germany and Scandinavia (fig.2). The Lek possibly gave access to the lower reaches of the Meuse and the Scheldt.


The Roman wrecks found in the St. Peter Port harbour area are evidence for a commercial function for the harbour,and also show Guernsey being well established on the major trade route from Gaul to Britain at that time. Amphorae were found, which would have been used to transport commodities such as wine, garum and oil throughout the Roman world. A large amount of pitch was also transported on one of the Roman ships. The pitch has recently been traced to the Les Landes area of south-western France.


According to the ancient sources ancient Gytheion was used both as a commercial (Strabo, Geography, 8.5.2) and military harbour (Xenophon, Hellenica VI 5.30)


The harbour of Kenchreai was mainly commercial.


The district around the town of ancient Kition was inhabited from the Neolithic and Chalcolithic period (Άρπερα, Κίτι, Κλαυδιά), and during the Late Bronze Age the important settlement of Hala Sultan Tekke flourished. This city used as its harbour the present day salt-pan lake, which during this period had an exit to the sea thus ensuring a safe port (Engvig-Åström 1975). Evidence of the harbour and its use is indicated by the stone anchors that have been recovered in the area, and by the excavated materials that highlight the connection with the Near East, Egypt, and the Aegean. ’y the end of Late Bronze Age (13th century BC) the lake-port was abandoned, most probably due to the silting of its entrance (Nicolaou 1976, p. 9-52). For this reason the city was moved towards the north, having as a centre the district of Pamboula, were there was a small bay which could be used as the new harbour.

Kition was organised as a Mycenaean city comprising cyclopian walls, sanctuaries, an administrative centre, and workshops for the exploitation of copper, however the city declined in the 11th century BC during the period of unrest and turmoil that characterises this period. In the 9th Century BC Phoenecian traders who may have origionated from Tyre settled in the city, and by the middle of the century political power of the city and the surrounding area was firmly under their control, thus establishing the first colony west of Phonecia. Kition remained under a Phoenecian King until the Hellenistic period, and throughout its history it mostly supported other powers that were adverse to the surrounding Greek Kingdoms.

As skilful seamen and traders the Phoenicians of Kition advanced the city’s interests, and in the Classical period, to incorporate the kingdom of Idalion and buy the kingdom of Tamassos for the exploitation of their copper. They also exploited the Kingdoms natural resourses through the export of products such as the oil, indicated by the olive mill of the 3rd century BC at Mari-Kopetra, timber from the forests that existed in the area of Larnaka, and of course the salt from the nearby salt lakes (Yon 1994, 15 and Yon 1995, 121). The imports of products are attested to by the stamps on amphoras from Thasos, Chios, Rhodes, Knidos, and pottery from Athens, Phoenicia, Rhodes, and salted fish from Egypt. The commercial nature of the town is mentioned by various ancient sources, such as Dimosthenes and Lisias, and inscriptions, which mention Kition as the place of commercial activity, and Kitians as traders settled in various parts, such as Delos, Dimitrias, and Pireaus (Yon 1995, 120-121).


Concerning the chronology, Leonard places the site among the Roman harbour network of Cyprus. In addition Strabo was the only one who mentioned the anchorage(?). Due to the unique position of this point on the sea-route on the south coast of the island, the geomorphology of the area, and the short distance between the shore and the city, its possible that the bay was in use for maritime activity from earlier on than the Roman times.


In conclusion it may be seen that during the 5th century BC, in which the first coins are minted, the Phoenecian kings constructed the harbour of Lapethos, which was intricately tied to the power and prestige that it afforded the kingdom. With the advantage the harbour had of not being located near a river, it remained unaffected by the problems of silting, evident in so many other harbours. This advantage allowed it to be utilised even today. Supplementary construction was undertaken during the Roman period, and in 1957, however the origional plan of the harbour has not been altered since it also affords protection from all wind directions.


The harbour complex was used for merchant oriented activities, either supplying the city with goods or loading exports for sale elsewhere, but also as an important naval base for part, if not the largest portion of the Corinthian navy.


Die Funktion war hauptsächlich die eines Handelshafens. Ein getrennter Kriegshafen ist nicht bekannt (keyword function commercial). Leptis Magna war mit dem geschützten Hafen vor/nach der überquerung der großen und kleinen Syrte eine wichtige Etappe entlang der nordafrikanischen Küste (Route ägypten-Karthago).


This geopolitical tension can be easily explained by taking into account the position of the city, which is the nearest Cypriot harbour to the sea-route from Rhodes. With the construction of the larger harbour at (Nea) Paphos during the Hellenistic period, the importance of Marion as the primary harbour on the Rhodes-Cyprus sea route was dramatically lessened. In the following years the sea route that connected Rhodes with the Near East was undertaken using the harbours of Paphos, Limassol, and Kition.


Handelshafen, kein getrennter Kriegshafen bekannt.


The position of Paphos on the protected north-west and south-west region of Cyprus had as a result the geographical benefit whereby ships would pause on their journeys from the beginning of maritime contact between Cyprus and the outside world (Hohlfelder 1995, 194). During the Hellenistic period the city of Paphos became the capital of Cyprus, replacing Salamis, and a large port was constructed whose remains may still be seen at the site of the modern harbour. According to Strabo the Hellenistic city of Paphos ascended to become the first city on Cyprus due to the port that offered three harbours which were protected from all wind directions, with easy access to the timber forests ideal for shipbuilding, and with the ports of Alexandria and Rhodes within easy reach, and during which time the harbour of Salamis had become so silted as to render it useless.


Nell’area urbana di Roma, documentazioni epigrafiche e testimonianze storiche ci tramandano i nomi di numerosi porti. Gli studiosi sono giustamente propensi a riferire questi nomi non a strutture portuali distinte ma a denominazioni date a determinati tratti di banchine specializzate nella ricezione e nello smistamento di particolari mercanzie o in rapporto topografico con aree di magazzini di specifici prodotti.
In linea generale, possiamo dire che i porti di Ripa Grande (a Sud) e Ripetta (a Nord) esistenti fino alla metà dell’800 trovano una certa corrispondenza nella situazione antica.
Il grande porto commerciale della capitale va ricercato dunque nel Foro Boario (il Portus Tiberinus) e nella zona di Marmorata e Testaccio (Emporium) dove, a partire dal II secolo a.C., Portus Tiberinus si è andato ampliando.
Isolato e di modesta rilevanza è lo scalo, di cui rimangono resti di scarichi e di argini, nella parte Nord. Quest’ultimo, forse, rispondeva principalmente alle esigenze di un commercio interno, quale, per esempio, quello relativo al tufo dell’Aniene.

Il porto era principalmente costituito da banchine con piani inclinati, scale, anelli per ormeggio. Si tratta di "ripae" costruite lungo gli argini del fiume. In stretta connessione con quest’ultime si trovavano i magazzini ("horrea", "cellae") per lo stoccaggio delle merci.

A valle della zona individuata come centro del traffico portuale, ovvero a valle del porto urbano, si ha la testimonianza di una fascia attrezzata, su ambedue le rive, per lo sviluppo di almeno 2 km. Anche in questo caso si tratta di "ripae" costruite in opera cementizia o quadrata, parzialmente provviste di piani inclinati e anelli di ormeggio.
Questi apprestamenti si possono considerare come un’appendice del porto urbano, potendo servire come scali sussidiari o banchine di attesa. In particolare è da notare una connessione con le vie Ostiense e Campana, attraverso le quali le merci potevano essere introdotte in città.


Another reason of this orientation is the neighboring copper mines of Phoucasa and Scouriotissa, where the first evidence of copper production can be traced dating from Early Bronze Age (Ambelikou). This product, and concurrently the fertile valley with the abundant forests of the Troodos foothills, could not have escaped the attention of the Mycenean colonists and traders, and also the Greeks of the Historical Times.


At the beginning of the Slavic settlement in Szczecin the river western bank ran adjacent to the site of discovery, under the hill Zamkowe Wzgórze. It is also were probably the trading port was.


Heute als Fischerei- und Yachthafen verwendet; ehemalige Funktion unbekannt.


1. From second half VI century to second half VII century: settlement about fishing - agricultural character with building half dugout.


From halves VII of age existed in Wolin settlement handicraft-trade engaged with sea – trade. In IX century evolved into fully developed sea-trade centre of municipal type, basing oneself on trade with cereal, of production craftsman's and to far-reaching exchange (Filipowiak 1985).


Diese Kaianlage war Bestandteil des Handelshafen der CUT: Warenstapel und Umschlagplatz am Ende wichtiger römischer Landverkehrswege mit Kontakten ins rechtsrheinische Gebiet. Es bot sich hier die Gelegenheit eines sicheren Be- und Entladens sowie des Treidelns. überliefert ist auf einer Weihinschrift zum Wohle des Kaisers Antonius Pius (160n, heute im Rheinischen Landesmuseum, Bonn) der Baumaterialtransport mittels Lastschiffe der "classis germanica" zum Wiederaufbau des Forums der CUT.


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